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<批評論文> 한국 교육의 전통과 사범교육의 진로 : The Tradition of Korean Education and the Prospects of Teacher Education

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역사교육 No.167, pp.123-156
This research revisits the significance of the term Sabum( 師範 ) which symbolizes the traditional education system in Korea and provides an overview of the history and future prospects of teacher education since the modern era. In Korea, a Sabum was not merely an instructor; rather, it represented an educator who was tasked with achieving the highest standards of scholarship, conduct, and morality through both learning and teaching. Thus, Sabum has consistently embodied the holistic embodiment of various prerequisites for scholarship and education, coupled with ethical values, both in the past and today.
In 1895, the Joseon government established The Hanseong Normal School to uphold the spirit of traditional Sabum while exploring a modernized approach to teacher education. Private teacher training schools were also established to enhance national consciousness among educators. However, during the Japanese colonial period, this cherished tradition of Korean teacher education was disrupted. The Kyeongseong Normal School established by Japan in 1922 aimed to cultivate teachers loyal to the Japanese emperor and adherent to their militaristic ideology, effectively replacing our Sabum with Japans Sado( 師道 ).
After the liberation in 1945, normal schools and college of education were established to prepare elementary and secondary school teachers. This marked a revival and expansion of our traditional Sabum. Subsequently, with industrialization, teacher education institutions expanded further, and in 1990, the teacher certification examination was introduced. Today, Korean education faces various challenges, and to address these challenges and cultivate new teaching competencies suitable for the future society, a renewed sense of purpose and identity in teacher education, i.e., Sabum, is urgently needed.
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