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Evaluation of a novel, low-cost, 3D printed video laryngoscope with borescope in anesthetized Beagle dogs

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Sung, Taehoon; Shin, Donghwi; Rhee, Suehyung; Nam, Changhoon; Kim, Minha; Park, Chailin; Lee, Jungha; Kim, Junsoo; Lee, Inhyung; Son, Won-Gyun

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Blackwell Publishing Inc.
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, Vol.51 No.3, pp.266-270
Objective: To develop and evaluate a low-cost three-dimensional (3D)-printed video laryngoscope (VLVET) for use with a commercial borescope. Study design: Instrument development and pilot study. Animals: A total of six adult male Beagle dogs. Methods: The VLVET consisted of a laryngoscope handle and a Miller-type blade, and a detachable camera holder that attached to various locations along the blade. The laryngoscope and camera holder were 3D-printed using black polylactic acid filament. Dogs were premedicated with intravenous (IV) medetomidine (15 μg kg−1) and anesthesia induced with IV alfaxalone (1.5 mg kg−1). The VLVET, combined with a borescope, was used for laryngeal visualization and intubation. Performance was evaluated by comparing direct and video-assisted views in sternal recumbency. The borescope camera was sequentially positioned at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 cm from the blade tip (distanceLARYNX-CAM), which was placed on the epiglottis during intubation or laryngoscopy. At the 10 cm distanceLARYNX-CAM, laryngeal visualization was sequentially scored at inter-incisor gaps of 10, 8, 6, 4 and 2 cm. Laryngeal visualization scores (0–3 range, with 0 = obstructed and 3 = unobstructed views) were statistically analyzed using the Friedman's test. Results: Under direct visualization, the 2 cm distanceLARYNX-CAM had a significantly lower score compared with all other distanceLARYNX-CAM (all p = 0.014) because the view was obstructed by the camera holder and borescope camera. With both direct and camera-assisted views, visualization scores were higher at inter-incisor gaps ≥ 4 cm compared with 2 cm (all p < 0.05). Conclusions and clinical relevance: During laryngoscopy and intubation, the VLVET and borescope facilitated both direct and video laryngoscopy at distanceLARYNX-CAM in Beagle dogs when inter-incisor gaps were ≥ 4 cm.
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  • College of Veterinary Medicine
  • Department of Veterinary Medicine
Research Area Pain Medicine, Systematic Anesthesia, Veterinary Anesthesiology, 수의마취통증의학


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