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Effect of the respiratory rate on the pulse pressure variation induced by hemorrhage in anesthetized dogs

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Kim, Dalhae; Son, Won-Gyun; Shin, Donghwi; Kim, Jiyoung; Lee, Inhyung

Issue Date
Korean Society of Veterinary Science
Journal of Veterinary Science, Vol.23 No.6, p. 22090
© 2022 The Korean Society of Veterinary Science This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.Background: Studies on anesthetized dogs regarding pulse pressure variation (PPV) are increasing. The influence of respiratory rate (RR) on PPV, in mechanically ventilated dogs, has not been clearly identified. Objectives: This study evaluated the influence of RR on PPV in mechanically ventilated healthy dogs after hemorrhage. Methods: Five healthy adult Beagle dogs were premedicated with intravenous (IV) acepromazine (0.01 mg/kg). Anesthesia was induced with alfaxalone (3 mg/kg IV) and maintained with isoflurane in 100% oxygen. The right dorsal pedal artery was cannulated with a 22-gauge catheter for blood removal, and the left dorsal pedal artery was cannulated and connected to a transducer system for arterial blood pressure monitoring. The PPV was automatically calculated using a multi-parameter monitor and recorded. Hemorrhage was induced by withdrawing 30% of blood (24 mL/kg) over 30 min. Mechanical ventilation was provided with a tidal volume of 10 mL/kg and a 1:2 inspiration-to-expiration ratio at an initial RR of 15 breaths/min (baseline). Thereafter, RR was changed to 20, 30, and 40 breaths/min according to the casting lots, and the PPV was recorded at each RR. After data collection, the blood was transfused at a rate of 10 mL/kg/h, and the PPV was recorded at the baseline ventilator setting. Results: The data of PPV were analyzed using the Friedman test followed by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test (p < 0.05). Hemorrhage significantly increased PPV from 11% to 25% at 15 breaths/min. An increase in RR significantly decreased PPV from 25 (baseline) to 17%, 10%, and 10% at 20, 30, and 40 breaths/min, respectively (all p < 0.05). Conclusions: The PPV is a dynamic parameter that can predict a dogs hemorrhagic condition, but PPV can be decreased in dogs under high RR. Therefore, careful interpretation may be required when using the PPV parameter particularly in the dogs with hyperventilation.
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  • College of Veterinary Medicine
  • Department of Veterinary Medicine
Research Area Pain Medicine, Systematic Anesthesia, Veterinary Anesthesiology, 수의마취통증의학


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