S-Space College of Humanities (인문대학) Institute of Humanities (인문학연구원) Journal of humanities (인문논총) Journal of Humanities vol.17 (1986) (인문논총)
19세기 전반기의 사회변동과 노동사상 -Louis Blanc을 중심으로
Social Change of Europe in the Former Half of the Nineteenth Century and Louis Blanc's Ideas of Labour
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 인문대학 인문과학연구소
- 인문논총, Vol.19, pp. 165-189
- European society of the former half of the nineteenth century was heavily influenced by the Dual Revolution, that is, the French Revolution and the Industrial Revoltion. The Industrial Revolution produced the working class and the problems of labour, though it accomplished the development of modern capitalism. In the nineteenth century the so-called utopian socialists ─ Fourier, Owen, Saint-Simon ─ attempted to solve these problems in their own ways. They tried 'to discover a new and more perfect system of social order and to impose this upon society from without by propaganda, and, wherever it was possible, by the example of model experiments. These new social systems were foredoomed as utopians' (Engels). Louis Blanc(1811~82), born later than these utopians and lived through almost the whole century, showed a more practical and concrete way to socialism. He vehemently condemned the limitless competition of capitalist society and deeply sympathised with the poverty-ridden workers. In order to eliminate such social wrongs he proposed to create 'the social workshop', a kind of producer's corporation. Initially established under state sponsorship, these workshops should be run by the workers themselves. Blanc believed that his social workshops would prevail over the existing factories based on competition because of their increased productivity based on fraternal solidarity. In the same way, he expected a fraternal absorption of the bourgeoisie rather than a violent revolutionary triumph over it by the proletariat. Blanc firmly believed that a democratically elected republic would willingly initiate the social revolution without violence and terror. So there would be no dictatorial institutions, for even a brief time. Blan's ideas gained wide popularity among workers during 1840s and had a precarious chance to be realized in the spring of 18'18, but failed. Blanc's socialism stood between the utopian socialism and Marxism, chronologically and ideologically. His belief in peaceful transition to socialism may have some connection with modern French humanistic socialism(socialisme humaniste).