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대각국사 의천의 천태종 창립과 송의 천태종
oich'bn's Foundation of the Ch'bnt'ae Sect and its Relation to Song Dynasty's Tiantai Buddhism

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Authors
최병헌
Issue Date
2002
Publisher
서울대학교 인문대학 인문학연구원
Citation
인문논총, Vol.47, pp. 29-57
Abstract
This paper, as part of a project to understand Korean Buddhist history within
the broader context of East Asian Buddhism - coming after several studies on the
thought of Wŏnhyo and Chinul - seeks to adopt a comparative approach to the
interpretation of the Ch'ŏnt'ae sect founded by Ŭich'ŏn. I considered therefore
Ŭich'ŏn's activities within the background of East Asian Buddhism, and examined
their relation to the Tiantai sect in China. At a time when the Hwaŏm and
Pŏpsang sects were polarised and opposing each other, Ŭich'ŏn - though sticking
fast to the Hwaŏm precepts - established a third sect, namely the Tiantai, with
the objective of weakening the Son sects (Nine Mountains) by attracting their
monks to the newly founded Ch'ŏnt'ae. Due to Ŭich'on's ideological background
the ideals of "harmonization of the Ch'ŏnt'ae and Hwaŏm sects" from the
doctrinal point of view, and of the "simultaneous cultivation of theory and
practice" (kyogwan pyŏngsu) were both perceived as of the utmost importance.
Therefore the process of adopting the Tiantai sect of the Song dynasty implied
two aspects: while on one side it claimed officially to adopt the tenets of the
orthodox Shanjia pai, on the other side in terms of content it was actually closer
to the Shanwai pai, which was generally considered heretical and retained a
strong Huayan influence. As the Ch'ŏnt'ae sect was based on a clergy exclusively
composed of Son masters, it remained Ch'ŏnt'ae only in name after the death of
Ŭich'on. Its contents and character were heavily laden with Son elements. Thus,
the establishment of the Ch'ont'ae sect led to a division of the Son sects of
Koryŏ into the Ch'ŏnt'ae and the Chogye orders. Consequently, the Ch'ŏnt'ae sect
was thereafter officially classified as a Meditation sect also by the State. Yose
(1153-1245) understood the problems of the Ch'ŏnt'ae sect as deriving from its
Sŏn character and tried to solve them through the adoption of the Tiantai
teachings of Siming Zhili, a representative of the Tiantai sect during the early
Song dynasty. He emphasized a type of faith centered on the Lotus Sutra and the
Pure Land teachings, thereby trying to establish the true character of the Ch'ŏnt'ae
sect, as distinct from the Hwaŏm and Sŏn sects. In view of the above it seems
obvious that in order to understand the doctrinal contents and historical character
of the Ch'ŏnt'ae sect of Ŭich'ŏn we need to adopt a comparative approach and
analyse Ŭich'ŏn's Ch'ont'ae in conjunction with the Tiantai sect of China, and
particularly that of the Song dynasty. We also need to mention that Japanese
Tendai followed quite a different path of development. It came under the strong
influence of esoteric Buddhism, while in Korea and China, as mentioned above,
the Ch'ŏnt'ae tradition developed under the influence of both the Hwaŏm and Sŏn
doctrines.
ISSN
1598-3021
Language
Korean
URI
https://hdl.handle.net/10371/29341
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College of Humanities (인문대학)Institute of Humanities (인문학연구원)Journal of humanities (인문논총)Journal of Humanities vol.47 (2002) (인문논총)
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