멕시코혁명 및 혁명 후 체제에 대한 연구 동향의 변화 -1980년대 말 이래 영·미 학계의 연구를 중심으로 : A Reflection on the Current Research Trend of the Mexican Revolution With a Focus on English & American Academia

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서울대학교 인문대학 인문학연구원
인문논총, Vol.54, pp. 73-102
This article attempts to examine the recent research trend of the Mexican
Revolution with a special emphasis on English & American academia. As
exemplified in a popular title the Mexican Revolution, 1910~1940, many works
have claimed that after 1940, the institutionalized Revolution began to change its
preceding radical orientation. According to the populist interpretations by prorevolutionists,
the Mexican Revolution was considered to be a social revolution
from the bottom up, for instance, represented by the Zapatista peasant
movement, and a consensual process for modernity and social justice. However,
the revisionists, reinforced especially after the Tlatelolco massacre in October
1968 in that the so-called revolutionary police and army killed more than 200
resistant students, have criticized diverting revolutionary myths and the
governing coalitions top-down imposition against the popular will. For them,
the Mexican Revolution resulted in a mighty centralizing Leviathan that would
crush poor, god-fearing, and localized people to turn them into new submissive
elements for capitalist development.
Since the late 1980s, a new historical perspective called post-revisionist viewhas tried to synthesize the populist and revisionist interpretations of the
Revolution and post-revolutionary Mexico. Questioning the strength of postrevolutionary
regime and the gullibility of the peasants, this new research based
on cultural approaches has attempted to understand popular participation in
local and national politics, and the cultural dimension of interaction between
state and peasantry. Its practitioners tend to rely on the concept of negotiation to
grasp this interaction. For example, while the Lázaro Cárdenas presidency
(1934~1940) was either extolled as the culmination of the Mexican Revolution in
the populist perspective, or criticized as an effective manipulator of the masses
in the interest of modernizing national bourgeoisie by the revisionist
interpretations, post-revisionist view has reshaped the era as a contested terrain
in that top-down elite planning was in conflict and negotiation with regional
popular forces, both progressive and conservative, on the way to forming a new
Mexican nation.
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College of Humanities (인문대학)Institute of Humanities (인문학연구원)Journal of humanities (인문논총)Journal of Humanities vol.54 (2005) (인문논총)
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