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交換關係의 類型과 構成員의 自發的 組織行動間의 關聯性에 관한 硏究

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서울대학교 노사관계연구소
Journal of industrial relations, Vol.09, pp. 165-204
Organizational citizenship behavior(OCB) is a class of job related behaviors which have been suggested as a fruitful addition to traditional conceptions of job performance. OCB is defined as those behaviors which are discretionary. are not formally recognized by the organizational reward system. and in the aggregate. promote organizational effectiveness. By including OCB in definitions of job performance. researchers may describe more fully the behaviors that lead to job effectiveness and a facet of performance which is more likely under the personal control of the employee. This study examines the categories of OCB and the typology of organizations based on the type of contract. This research also explores how the characteristics of typology of organizations effects on the OCB. Research findings can be summaries as follows:

(1) Has the outcome variable traditionally called job performance adequately described the range of behaviors exhibited by an employee which would advance the welfare of the organization? Their answer was clearly no. Organ(1988) instead proposed that job performance should be expanded to include behaviors that were not so directly linked. yet were still important. This research suggested that including OCBs as performance would offer a more complete conception of the behaviors needed to forward the welfare of the organization.

(2) Graham and Organ(l993) proposed a typology of organizations based on the type of contract that binds organizational participants. The typology consists of three organizational types: transactional. social exchange, and covenantal organizations. Varieties of OCB are possible on all three cases. In transactional agreements, the parties are unlikely to engage in helpful innovative and spontaneous behavior" not specified in the agreement. By contrast, the parties to social exchange agreements are likely to volunteer helpful but unrequired behavior, and to be patient and forgiving of organizational shortcomings. On the other hand, they expect the organization to return the favor, that is, to tolerate their occasional mistakes, and to offer them secure employment. Covenantal partners are even more involved than those in social exchange agreements because they share responsibility for upholding and/or pursuing transcendent values. This minimizes the need for close supervision or other costly behavioral control systems. Therefore OCB is expected to social exchange agreements and covenantal organization.
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