한국의 외국인력 정책
Foreign Labor Policy in Korea

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임현진; 설동훈
Issue Date
서울대학교 사회과학연구원
한국사회과학, Vol.22 No.3/4, pp. 153-186
현행 외국인력 정책인 '산업기술연수제도'와 '연수취업제도' 의 문제점을 극복하기 위한 대안으로서 '고용허가제도' 의 내용을 탐색하고, 그 실시 방안을 설계한다.현행 외국인력 정책은 ①명분과 실제가 일치하지 않는 표리부동한 편법, ② 미등록노동자 수의 증가를 막는데 실패한 제도, ③ 외국인노동자 인권침해를 유발한 제도, ④ 외국인노동자 선발을 둘러싼 비리를 양산한 제도, ⑤ 미등록노동자가 산업연수생보다 법률적으로 우대받는 제도라는 치명적 문제점을 갖고 있다.본 연구는 외국인력 정책 대안으로서 고용허가제도의 내용을 정리하고, 구체적 시행계획을 설계하여 제시하고 있다.고용허가제도는 '국내 노동시장 보완성의 원칙' 과 '차별 금지의 원칙' 에 기초를 두고 있는데, 국내 외국인노동자에게 '근로자' 신분을 부여하여 합법적으로 취업할 수 있도록 하는 외국인력 관리 방식이다.고용허가제도가 실시되면 한국 정부의 직업안정기관이 외국인력 수입의 주체가 될 것이며, 송출비리와 불법체류자 양산 등 각종 문제를 해소할 수 있을 것이다.

In this paper, we discuss various problems of Korea's current foreign labor policy instituted in such systems as the 'Industrial and Technical Training Program for Foreigner's(ITTP) and the 'Working After Training Program for Foreigners'(WATP).As and alternative to these current systems, we suggest an the 'Employment Permit Program for Foreigners'(EPP) and illustrate how this new system with public employment security organizations as labor importing agencies would help solve such problems as the rising number of undocumented workers in Korea.

The ITTP, Korea's first foreign labor import scheme, prevents foreign workers-so-called industrial trainees-from acquiring proper working status and accompanying benefits.As such, industrial trainees and other undocumented migrant workers lack the means to protect themselves from abuses of employers and routine threats to deport them.In 1998, the WATP was introduced as an improvement to the ITTP.In this new system, trainees who pass certain skills tests after a two-year of industrial traineeship are allowed to enjoy workers rights under the Labor Standards Act and the Minimum Wages Act.However, the problems resulting from the ITTP remain as (1) industrial trainees continue to be abused and are still only de facto laborers; (2) the number of undocumented (or illegal) migrant workers has not been reduced with the WATP; (3) migrant workers' basic human rights continue to be violated; and (4) undocumented migrants are better paid than the legal industrial trainees, which further encourages the trainees to leave their designated work places.

We propose the EPP as a solution to the above problems and discuss a detailed implementation plan of the system.This new system is based on the principles of local labor market complementarity and of non-discrimination of migrant workers.Once the Korean government passes and implements the Employment of Foreign Workers Act, as we propose in this paper, public employment agencies would bee able to import foreign workers as legitimate "laborers" to Korea way, it would become possible for the Korean society to reap the maximum economic benefits from the inflow of unskilled migrant workers without depriving the migrant workers of their social and economic rights.
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College of Social Sciences (사회과학대학)Center for Social Sciences (사회과학연구원)한국사회과학한국사회과학 vol.22 (2000)
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