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일본산업의 구조조정과 고용구조의 변화 : Japans Industrial Adjustment and Changes in Employment Structure

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서울대학교 지역종합연구소
지역연구, Vol.04 No.1, pp. 1-43
The aim of this study is to examine the development mechanism of the Japanese economy and its structural characteristics by analizing the following issues: To which direction has the structure adjustment of Japanese industry been unfolded? By which primary factor are the employment promotion and the change of employment structure in the process of structure adjustment being realized?

After early 1970s, Japanese industry has converted its industrial structure from the basic material industry, which is intensive to resource to the processing assembly industry, which is intensive to technology, by giving impetus to the rationalization centering on the outage management under diverse policy supports. Moreover, until the middle of 1980s, they have reinforced the production system of full range industrialization which is obstructive to import and dependent on export in almost all the industries. But, after 1985, they moved the stronghold for production to the foreign countries and increased the product import through foreign direct investment by reflecting the rapid Yen appreciation. Thus, this production system started to collapse with relatively fast speed. In spite of the advance of this so-called industrial hollow tendency, the employment production sectors became stable by the policy support about employment stability, the close cooperation system between labor and management. In the meantime, the service tendency of employment structure and the white collar tendency of job structure progressed rapidly by the expansion of service sectors based on the diversification of enterprice activities.

This fact is suggesting that the proper intervention of government about the realm of market failure, the formation of close cooperation system between labor and management, and the business expansion toward new field etc. may advance the structure of employment and job highly, controlling the unemployment with adjustment cost to the minimum.
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