S-Space Graduate School of International Studies (국제대학원) Dept. of International Studies (국제학과) 국제지역연구 국제지역연구 vol.04 (1995)
인도의 토지개혁과 농민운동
Land Reforms and Socio-Economic Changes in India
- 박종수; 백좌흠; 장상환
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 지역종합연구소
- 지역연구, Vol.04 No.4, pp. 43-90
- Changes in agrarian structure can occur in either of the two ways:(1) as a result of the spontaneous operation of socio-economic processes, and (2) as a result of direct intervention are characterised as land reforms. The need for direct intervention in the form of land reforms emanated in India from the exploitative nature of the land tenure system prevailing during the pre - independence period.
It was basically to stop the exploitation of the actual tillers of the soil and pass on the ownership of land to them that land reforms were introduced in the post-independence period in India. Measures contemplated to achieve the objectives were abolition of intermediaries, tenancy reforms, reorganisation of agriculture. Here, tenancy reforms included following set of measures: regulation of rent, security of tenure, ownership right for tenants. And the reorganisation of agriculture included the following policies: redistribution of land, consolidation of holdings, cooperative farming. But land reforms in India have failed miserably because of snags in legislation, lack of political will, and apathy of the bureacracy, and so on.
Narrowly defined, the Green Revolution is the rapid growth in the Third World grain output associated with the introduction of a new package of tropical agricultural inputs. The package consists essentially of a combination of improved grain varieties, mainly rice and wheat, heavy fertilizer usage and carefully controlled irrigation the new varieties usually yield no more and sometimes less than traditional strains. As a result, disparities between rich farmers and poor farmers grew as only the former were capable of adopting it. The most important effects of the Green Revolution on political tensions might be grouped into four categories: intensified regional conflict, changes in the form of rural class struggle, the growth of an urban lumpen, and the speedup of changes. In these context, this paper highlights the agrarian reforms and socio-economic changes of India after Independence.