S-Space Graduate School of International Studies (국제대학원) Dept. of International Studies (국제학과) 국제지역연구 국제지역연구 vol.06 (1997)
일본관광의 사회조직: 단체여행의 역사와 문화
History and Culture of Japanese Group Tourism
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 지역종합연구소
- 지역연구, Vol.06 No.1, pp. 103-124
- This paper aims at an understanding of Japanese culture by examining the characteristic features of Japanese touristic behaviour. The focus of study lies with the well-known pattern of Japanese group tourism. Although one may hear some criticism against and a move away from this pattern recently, the pattern of travelling in relatively large groups seems to remain a dominant pattern for Japanese tourists both in domestic and overseas journeys.
This paper has shown that, historically, the practice of group tourism in Japan has its origin in the middle age tradition of pilgrimage that had first appeared among the aristocrats in the late Heian period and popularised among the commoners during the Edo period. It is also indicated that the highly developed modern tourist business in Japan can be traced back to the comprehensive travel guide system of oshi-sentatsu developed along with this pilgrimage tradition.
Later, during the early Meiji period, the institutionalization of regular trips in such modern organizations as schools, firms, agricultural cooperatives and other associations has effectively contributed toward continuation of the dominant travelling pattern as a universal "rite of passage" and hence an essential part of national culture. While the ostensible purposes of these institutionalized trips are both educational and recreational, they are also believed to strengthen the group solidarity and enrich human relationships.
Finally, the heavy ritualization of relationships between those who go out travelling and those who remain behind is noted as another distinct feature of Japanese touristic behaviour, and the customs of kadojime, kagezen, sakamukae, and senbetsu and omiyage are explained in this connection.