S-Space College of Humanities (인문대학) Religious Studies (종교학과) 종교와 문화(Religion and Culture) 종교와 문화(Religion and Culture) 08호(2002)
루터 종교개혁의 문화적인 의미 - Ernst Troeltsch 의 관점에서
The Cultural Significance of Luther's Reformation - A Critical Evaluation of Ernst Troeltsch's Interpretation of Luther's Reformation
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 종교문제연구소
- 종교와 문화, Vol.8, pp. 163-182
- The purpose of this paper is to investigate the historical interrelation between Luther's reformation and modern civilization, critically evaluating Emst Troeltsch's research on this subject. The paper argues that studying the Reformation spirit is an adequate basis for learning about the interrelations between religion and culture and especially between Protestant Christianity and modern civilization. The significance of the Reformation for the development of modem civilization has not carefully been taken into account, though it is still the subject of many fruitful discussions. Bearing in mind the inquiry about the importance of the Reformation and of Protestantism for the rise and development of modem civilization, this paper demonstrates that Luther's reformation marked the beginning of the 'modem era,' bringing about the breakup of the authoritarianism of the medieval papalism and of the ecclesial unity of civilization. Based on his purely historical analysis of the religion of Christianity, Ernst Troeltsch seeks to determine how much the Modern Spirit actually owes to Protestantism. Troeltsch argues that modem civilization was formed by the Enlightenment, which emancipated common life from the authority of organized religion, including that of Protestantism. Although Troeltsch recognizes modem tendencies in old Protestantism, he believes that the Reformation, especially in its Lutheran form, remained by every measure more medieval than modem in outlook. Troeltsch views Luther's Reformation as, far from advocating individual freedom and autonomy, being a conservative "church-type" of religion.
Troeltsch's overall negative judgment can not be justified in the historical context of 1,uther's social philosophy. Careful attention should he given to the social order of the first decade of the Reformation, and then to the inner dynamics that effected the emancipation of powerful cultural forces from the papacy. While taking into account Troeltsch's critics of Lutlier's Reformation, this paper demonstrates 'non-medieval elements' rooted in Luther's doctrine of Justification and his views on religion and society.