스페인의 지역 민족주의 : 정치적 자치와 문화 정체성
Regional Nationalism in Spain: Political Autonomy and Cultural Identity

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임호준; 홍두승
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서울대학교 국제지역원
국제지역연구, Vol.09 No.2, pp. 63-84
Regional nationalism has been deeply embedded in the tradition of Spain. The etnic, linguistic and cultural differences prevalent in the regions of Catalonia, Vasque and Galicia still persist. The radical regionalism in the beginning of the 20thC century gave rise to the Spanish civil war along with the impact of anarchism, labor and peasant movements. During the Franco"s era, regionalism was oppressed by the strong, centralized government. And any behaviors and actions to pursue regional identity including speaking regional languages were severly prohibited.

After Franco"s death, resurrection of regionalism became a hot social issue. In the constitution newly established in 1977, Spain chose tod become a union of the seventeen states separated both politically and culturally. Although the majority of Spanish people support “plural Spain,” the restoration of regionalism was no simple task because throughout the Franco"s era, regionalism had been already debilitated and even among the regionalists there was no agreement on the issue of the relationship between the central and regional governments.

More recently, European integration, increased immigration, expansion of internet usage, and global capitalism have contributed to place Spanish regionalism in a new phase. As the national identity becomes blurred with the emergence of the global community, it appears to be more difficult to pursue one"s regional identity. Although Franco strenuously claimed that “Spain is different” to distinguish his country from other European countries, contemporary Spain seems to merge to the European community. The individual seeking his/her identity does not rely on the regional community any more, and thus, the idenitity of regional culture no longer represents the individual"s identity.

This paper suggests that in this global world the best way to retain the identity of a regional culture is to maintain an open-door policy and to keep a flexible nationalism rather than to opt for exclusive regional isolation or seclusion. The global culture is always varying and as such the Spanish regionalism needs to be readjusted to the ever changing global environment.
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Graduate School of International Studies (국제대학원)Dept. of International Studies (국제학과)국제지역연구 국제지역연구 vol.09 (2000)
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