S-Space Graduate School of International Studies (국제대학원) Dept. of International Studies (국제학과) 국제지역연구 국제지역연구 vol.12 (2003)
브라질의 불평등, 제도 그리고 경제발전간의 상관관계에 대한 연구
A Study on the Relation between Inequality, Institutions and Development of Brazil
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 국제대학원
- 국제지역연구, Vol.12 No.1, pp. 113-136
- These days, there are serious social conflicts and instability in Brazil. Particularly, it is presented by the problems of social peace, such as brigand, stealing, homicide, abduction and kidnapper. Many people indicate that the Brazilian structural inequality of income distribution is the principle cause of these problems. Why did they occur and worsened? This article was set up with this question and tried to analyse the problems through institutional approaches.
In Brazil, the economic inequality was formed from the sugar economy of early 16th century, that is, from the initial stage of colonial development by Portugal. In a plantation, one people owned most of instruments that are needed to produce sugar, lands, slaves, and capitals. It meant absolutely high economic concentration. The economic inequality influenced the social and political structure of Brazil and maintained until 1930s, the turning point from the agricultural economy to industrial economy. But the industrialization of Brazil after the 1930s could not resolve and improve the problem of inequality. On the contrary, the industrialization deteriorated economic concentration, adopting inadequate industrial policy.
Consequently, it indicates that the economic, social and political inequality were based on the formal institutions formed in Brazilian society, meaning that institutions themselves had serious problem. Because of these inadequate institutions, forceful interest groups formed in Brazilian society. Thus, formal institutions and interest groups could be the indicators of the principal cause of Brazilian inequality. This problem of inequality provides the cause of actual explosion of social conflicts, the deterioration of Brazilian life quality, between classes. Finally, it also indicates that institutional problems have impeded the economic development.
This paper consists of 5 sections. After introduction, basic notions of institutional economics are discussed. The third section demonstrates the situation of Brazilian inequality with the economic data. The forth section analyzes the cause of Brazilian inequality through the institutional approaches. Finally, this paper presents conclusion.