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Lee, Joung-Min; Kim, Yung-Soo; Kim, Chang-Whe; Jang, Kyung-Soo; Lim, Young-Jun

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TitaniumSurface treatmentSurface analysisCellular responsesCollagen production
Statement of problem. The long-term success of implants is the development of a stable direct connection between bone and implant surface, which must be structural and functional. To improve a direct implant fixation to the bone, various strategies have been developed focusing on the surface of materials. Among them, altering the surface properties can modify cellular responses such as cell adhesion, cell motility and bone deposition. Purpose. This study was to evaluate the cellular behaviors on the surface-modified titanium by morphological observation, cellular proliferation and differentiation. Material and methods. Specimens were divided into five groups, depending on their surface treatment: electropolishing(EP) anoclizing(AN), machining(MA), blasting with hydroxyapatite particle(RBM) and electrical discharge machining(EDM). Physicochemical properties and microstructures of the specimens were examined and the responses of osteoblast-like cells were investigated. The microtopography of specimens was observed by scanning electron microscopy(SEM). Surface roughness was measured by a three-dimensional roughness measuring system. The microstructure was analyzed by X-ray diffractometer(XRD) and scanning auger electron microscopy(AES). To evaluate cellular responses to modified titanium surfaces, osteoblasts isolated from neonatal rat were cultured. The cellular morphology and total protein amounts of osteoblast-like cell were taken as the marker for cellular proliferation, while the expression of alkaline phosphatase was used as the early differentiation marker for osteoblast. In addition, the type I collagen production was determined to be a reliable indicator of bone matrix synthesis. Results. 1. Each prepared specimen showed specific microtopography at SEM examination. The RBM group had a rough and irregular pattern with reticulated appearance. The EDM-treated surface had evident cracks and was heterogeneous consisting of broad sheet or plate with smooth edges and clusters of small grains, deep pores or craters. 2. Surface roughness values were, from the lowest to the highest, electropolished group, anodized group, machined group, RBM group and EDM group. 3. All groups showed amorphous structures. Especially anodized group was found to have increased surface oxide thickness and EDM group had titaniumcarbide(TiC) structure. 4. Cells on electropolished, anodized and machined surfaces developed flattened cell shape and cells on RBM appeared spherical and EDM showed both. After 14 days, the cells cultured from all groups were formed to be confluent and exhibited multilayer proliferation, often overlapped or stratified. 5. Total protein amounts were formed to be quite similar among all the group at 48 hours. At 14 days, the electropolished group and the anodized group induced more total protein amount than the RBM group(P<.05). 6. There was no significant difference among five groups for alkaline phosphatase(ALP) activity at 48 hours. The AN group showed significantly higher ALP activity than any other groups at 14 days(P<.05). 7. All the groups showed similar collagen synthesis except the EDM group. The amount of collagen on the electropolished and anodized surfaces were higher than that on the EDM surface(P<.05).
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College of Dentistry/School of Dentistry (치과대학/치의학대학원)Dept. of Dentistry (치의학과)Journal Papers (저널논문_치의학과)
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