서양인 편찬의 개화기 한국어 대역사전과 근대화-한국 근대 사회와 문화의 형성과정에 관련하여-

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서울대학교 규장각한국학연구원
한국문화, Vol.28, pp. 1-31
This study aims to examine new lexicons related to the formative process of modem Korean society and its civilisation, focusing on Korean-foreign language dictionaries compiled by westerners since the opening of ports in 1876 (gaehang 開港). The texts examined include the following: Dictionnaire Coreen-Francais (1880) compiled by the missionaries of Korea of the Society of Foreign Missions of Paris (les missionaires de Coree de la Societe des missions etrangeres de Paris); A Concise Dictionary of the Korean Language in Two Parts: Korean-English & English-Korean compiled by Horace Grant Underwood, A. M. a small dictionary for students; and A Korean-English Dictionary by James S. Gale. B. A. a medium-sized dictionary. Lexicons related to modernization were examined with particular attention to terms concerned with religion. as the compilers of these dictionaries were missionaries, whether Catholic or Protestant. Despite the fact that France was the cradle of modernization. Dictionnaire Coreen-Francais, compiled by French priests who came to Korea for missionary work is not rich in vocabulary related to modernization. This is probably due either to the fact that the priests in question were provincials not yet sensitive to modernization. or because vocabulary related to the modernization of Korea was not yet fully socialized. The religious lexicon include a relatively large number of Christianity-related expressions. showing an emphasis on the compilers' own religion. The conservatism shown toward modernization is demonstrated by the lack of the concept of civilisation corresponding to the terms "civilization" or "modernization." H. G. Underwood's A Concise Dictionary of the Korean Language in Two Parts: Korean-English & English-Korean (1890) shows a relatively larger number of modernization and Christianity-related lexicons within the English-Korean section when compared to the Korean-English section. This fact illustrates· the high probability that such expressions were not yet socialized within Korean society at that time. J. S. Gale's medium-sized dictionary. A Korean-English Dictionary (1897), surpasses Underwood's A Concise Dictionary of the Korean Language in Two Parts: Korean-English & English-Korean in its size and scope, A large number of expressions related to world geography. place names in particular. were plentifully included. and modernization- and Christianity-related lexicons were substantially expanded, This fact shows that new knowledge related to the newly introduced foreign culture/civilization became socialized within Korea up to a certain point in the 1880s and 90s. While one can see from a comprehensive look at these dictionaries that modernization-related lexicons increased in number, the trend was not a systematic one. Only a portion of concepts within the system of the new civilization were formed. and many omissions can be seen. Modernizationrelated vocabulary was often used during the period of modernization by the newspaper Dongnip sinmun (獨立新聞). and up to a certain point by some textbooks of the era. With many new laws being enacted during the Reform of 1894 (Gabo gyeongjang, 甲午更張) and the regime of the Japanese Residency-General in Korea (Tonggambu 統監府), countless new special terminology, mostly the terms for modem western concepts, appeared. However. these terms were introduced under the influence of the Japanese. who had accepted the modem ideology of the west before Koreans.
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Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies (규장각한국학연구원)Korean Culture (한국문화) Korean Culture (한국문화) vol.28 (2001)
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