S-Space Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies (규장각한국학연구원) Korean Culture (한국문화) Korean Culture (한국문화) vol.32 (2003)
숙종 영조대 對明義理論의 정치·사회적 기능
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 규장각한국학연구원
- 한국문화, Vol.32, pp. 153-179
- Daemyeong Euiri Discourse is a claim that the Chosun Dynasty (1392-1910) needs to keep faith with the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), which dispatched reinforcements to Chosun Korea during the Hideyoshi Invasions. This discourse was often accompanied by the claim called Daecheong Boksu Discourse (對淸復讐論), which means that Chosun must retaliate on the
Qing Dynasty that destroyed the Ming Dynasty in 1644. While Bukbeol Discourse (北伐論) claiming to destroy the North (Qing) based on Daemyeong Boksu Discourse was getting less effective as Qing China came to settle down, the Daemyeong Euiri Discourse or Jonju Discourse (尊周論) claiming to respect Zhou Dynasty continued to play a role as an alternative proposal that was very influential in Chosun Society until the late 19th century. Until now the Daemyeong Euiri Discourse has been perceived mainly through the perspective of moral obligation. However, if an ideology proved to be effective in a society for longer than two centuries, it is more reasonable to assume that the ideology had some effective values within the society. The fact that the Daemyeong Euiri Discourse was emphasized in specific periods means that there were special reasons why it had to be emphasized then. The reasons why the Daemyeong Euiri Discourse was emphasized in Chosun Korea varied depending on each period. King Sukjong (r. 1675-1720) stressed it in order to have Chosun Korea prepared for an unexpected situation, while being careful not to have Chosun's relationship with the Qing Dynasty worse. King Yeongjo (r. 1725-1776) emphasized the Daemyeong Euiri Discourse to provide an effective defense method against the rise of Mongolia, as well as to settle down the domestic economy by solving the adverse trade balance with Qing China. King Jeongjo (r. 1777- 1800), who sought a measure to enrich and strengthen Chosun Korea, found its spiritual doctrine in the Daemyeong Euiri Discourse. Each king of the Chosun Dynasty had different reasons why they had to emphasize the Daemyeong Euiri Discourse. But they all aimed to acquire some special effects by doing so, and it seems that their attempts were successful to an extent. The Daemyeong Euiri Discourse appears to have played an essential role in Chosun society during the 18th century. It gradually became weak, but was still very effective by the 19th century.