S-Space Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies (규장각한국학연구원) Korean Culture (한국문화) Korean Culture (한국문화) vol.43 (2008)
성리학의 수양론에서 敬과 靜의 상관적 의미
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 규장각한국학연구원
- 한국문화, Vol.43, pp. 3-22
- This thesis tried to elucidate how the reverence and tranquillity as crucial methods in Neo-confucian cultivating theory are understood within Zhuhsi and LeeHwang’s philosophy respectively, and which characteristic they have in each other. First, Zhuhsi’s cultivating theory synthesized that of Chou Tun-i and Ch’eng I being respectively contrasted with sitting in tranquillity and abiding in reverence and regarded sitting in tranquillity as an inevitable condition exercising one’s seriousness.
Reverence in Zhuhsi is what lies in state of single-mindedness and freedom from distraction as a condition making it possible to abiding and cultivating in the state of psychic equilibrium prior to the rise of emotion(wei-fa未發), and in the state posterior to the rise of emotion is an attitude not disturbing the mind so that one might exercises the investigation of things and extension of knowledge and exhaustive investigation of principles. Then, for the purpose of the accomplishment of this aim Zhuhsi suggested that it is necessary for one to exert to sitting in tranquillity making it possible to lessen the desire of mind and have an its bright ability of perception.
In comparison to this, it can be said that Leehwang’s cultivating theory shows the point of view gaining access to Cheng I’s one. Leehwang partly understands the calm of mind as the result of awareness of reverence in that he suggests that if one could maintain awareness of reverence well, his mind becomes light and calm. From this point of view, in case of Leehwang awareness of reverence is considered as that which encompasses sitting in tranquillity in commanding position.
Then, in Zhuhsi and Leehwang’s cultivating theory what is the reason why the relation of awareness of reverence with sitting in tranquillity is understood as different as this? This is due to a difference which is contained in their theory of principle and material forces. That is to say, in Zhuhsi’s philosophy, the principle in one hand is the objective rule of things which has a characteristic of non-operation, non-calculation and non-emotion, in other hand is also regarded as the reason being implied in man as the substance of moral rule.
For this reason, in Zhuhsi an exertion to calm the mind is required so that one might view outer things as they are while practicing exhaustive investigation of principles and extension of knowledge. In contrast, in Leehwang’s philosophy the principle means more the moral rule of human society than the rule of natural things. Accordingly, the best important role of awareness of reverence is what fused it by illuminating a subjective principle which is contained in one’s mind in its relation with outer things.
Here, the process through which one reflects a principle in one’s mind is just also sitting in tranquillity which calms the mind, and at the same time awareness of reverence. In conclusion, in Zhuhsi and LeeHwang’s cultivation theory the difference derived from meaning and their relationship of awareness of reverence and sitting in tranquillity is due to relative deviation of the point of view in cosmology, theory of mind and human nature, and theory of moral practice between two scholars.