영조대 對淸使行의 운영과 對淸關係에 대한 인식
Envoy Dispatch To Qing and Perception of the Relation with Qing in King Yeongjo Period

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서울대학교 규장각한국학연구원
한국문화, Vol.51, pp. 29-63
King YeongjoYongzheng EmperorQianlong Emperorenvoy delegationillegal crossing of the border with Qinginstallationadjusting the distortion of historyKim Sang-Myeong
The reign of Joseon's King Yeongjo (l724~1776) corresponds to that of

Yongzheng Emperor (l722~1735) and Qianlong Emperor (1735~1795) of Chinese

Qing Dynasty. In that period, Joseon and Qing were stable in politics and had kept

good relations with each other. Such good relations resulted from Qing Emperors'

preferential treatment on Joseon - the Emperors had led the relations with Joseon.

Amicable relations of that period can be evidenced by the frequency of envoy

dispatches. Average auuual Joseon-to-Qing envoy dispatch had decliued from 2.42

times to 1.67 times while average Qiug-to-Joseon envoy dispatch from 1.29 times to

0.43 times. Envoy dispatch gave a great burden to the national finance of both

couutries, in particular, being far heavier on Joseon. The declined frequency

indicates that Qing Emperors had confidence in Joseon and there were not much

issues to be solved politically.

Aside the political stability of bilateral relations, Joseon had a economic difficulty

in maintaining the envoy delegation. Joseon had earned lots of Japan's silver

through the transit trade between Qing and Japan. However, siuce 1720s Joseon's

silver stock had dropped sharply due to the rapid decline of japan's silver

production, the rise of Chinese raw silk price and others. So, Joseon government

restricted the unauthorized trading and private trade of civil trader in order to

prevent the outflow of silver. The measure was obviously expected to strengthen the

exclusive power of envoy trade which had been exercised by the hands-on staff of

delegation, that is, interpreter. But, in the condition that silver outflow should be

prevented, any measure could not help reducing the size of envoy trade.

The most sensitive issues, which King Yeongjo had given much attention to in

relation with Qing, were the installation of Hyojang crown prince(孝章世子) who

was only seven years old and the description of King Injo Restoration in Ming

History (明史) - At that time, Qing was preparing to publish the official history of

Ming Dynasty and Joseon tried that King Injo Restoration would not be described as

Injo's usurpation of Cwanghaegun's throne in rMing Historyj. For King Yeongjo

who was week in the legitimacy of accession, such issues should be solved to

show his dignity as King. Though the department of protocol of Qing raised an

objection, the installation of Hyojang crown prince was approved by Qing Emperor

finally in 1725. King Injo Restoration issue was successfully settled in 1739 by

officially receiving, from Qing government, the printed copy of the part related to

Joseon in Ming History.

In King Yeongjo period, there were important cooperators for Joseon's envoy

dispatch. The typical cooperator was Kim Sangr Myeong (1668 ?~ 1742). He is the

grandson of Kim Yeovgyu who defected to Qing around 1627. His family gained the

favor of Kangxi Emperor and especially Kim Sang-Myeong assumed high-ranking

position by contributing to Yongzheng Emperor's ascending. He played important

roles in solving diplomatic issues Joseon requested to Qing in the background. In

particular, He played a crucial part in changing the contents of rMing HistoryJ.

Zheng Shitai (鄭世泰), a Beijing-based business magnate, actually monopolized the

trade of Joseon delegation in Beijing. Besides trading, Joseon delegation had

procured urgent financing and other conveniences.

King Yeongjo and other leaders of Joseon had dual attitudes for Qing. They

thought intentionally and unfairly that both Yongzheng Emperor and Qianlong

Emperor were inclined to luxury life and had brutal and miser mind. They also

focused on the negative aspect of Qing that overall Qing society admired luxury

life. Such was based on the idea that Qing was a barbarian dynasty. However, on

the other hand, they acknowledged that Qing imposed lighter taxes than Ming and

was generous to Joseon and Joseon's delegation.
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Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies (규장각한국학연구원)Korean Culture (한국문화) Korean Culture (한국문화) vol.51 (2010)
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