S-Space College of Medicine/School of Medicine (의과대학/대학원) Internal Medicine (내과학전공) Journal Papers (저널논문_내과학전공)
K-CELLS AND GLUCOSE-DEPENDENT INSULINOTROPIC POLYPEPTIDE IN HEALTH AND DISEASE
- Cho, Young Min; Kieffer, Timothy J.
- Issue Date
- ELSEVIER ACADEMIC PRESS INC
- VITAMINS AND HORMONES: INCRETINS AND INSULIN SECRETION; Vol.84 ; 111-150
- In the 1970s, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP, formerly gastric inhibitory polypeptide), a 42-amino acid peptide hormone, was discovered through a search for enterogastrones and subsequently identified as an incretin, or an insulinotropic hormone secreted in response to intraluminal nutrients. Independent of the discovery of GIP, the K-cell was identified in small intestine by characteristic ultrastructural features. Subsequently, it was realized that K-cells are the predominant source of circulating GIP. The density of K-cells may increase under conditions including high-fat diet and obesity, and generally correlates with plasma GIP levels. In addition to GIP, K-cells secrete xenin, a peptide with as of yet poorly understood physiological functions, and GIP is often colocalized with the other incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Differential posttranslational processing of proGIP produces 30 and 42 amino acid versions of GIP. Its secretion is elicited by intraluminal nutrients, especially carbohydrate and fat, through the action of SGLT1, GPR40, GPR120, and GPR119. There is also evidence of regulation of GIP secretion via neural pathways and somatostatin. Intracellular signaling mechanisms of GIP secretion are still elusive but include activation of adenylyl cyclase, protein kinase A (PKA), and protein kinase C (PKC). GIP has extrapancreatic actions on adipogenesis, neural progenitor cell proliferation, and bone metabolism. However, the clinical or physiological relevance of these extrapancreatic actions remain to be defined in humans. The application of GIP as a glucose-lowering drug is limited due to reduced efficacy in humans with type 2 diabetes and its potential obesogenic effects demonstrated by rodent studies. There is some evidence to suggest that a reduction in GIP production or action may be a strategy to reduce obesity. The meal-dependent nature of GIP release makes K-cells a potential target for genetically engineered production of satiety factors or glucose-lowering agents, for example, insulin. Transgenic mice engineered to produce insulin from intestinal K-cells are resistant to diabetes induced by a beta-cell toxin. Collectively, K-cells and GIP play important roles in health and disease, and both may be targets for novel therapies. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc.
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