송시열의 사단칠정론(四端七情論) : Song Si-Yeol's theory on the Four Beginnings and the Seven Emotions

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서울대학교 종교문제연구소
종교와 문화, Vol.21, pp. 49-75
우암 송시열퇴계 이황율곡 이이사단칠정호발리통기국기발리승인심도심Uam Song Si-Yeol(尤庵 宋時裂)Toegye Vi Hwang(退溪 李滉)Vulgok Vi I(栗谷 李珥)the Four Beginnings(四端)the Seven Emotions(七情)mutual issuance(互發)Li is universal and Ri is particular(理通氣局)Ki issues and Li ri(氣發理乘)the human mind(人心)the Tao mind(道心)
16세기 조선사회에서 퇴계 이황(退溪 李滉, 1501-1507)과 고봉 기대승(高峯 奇大升, 1527-1571) 사이에 전개되기 시작한 사단칠정논쟁(四端七情論爭)은 조선성리학의 독자적인 발전 과정을 보여주는 대표적인 논쟁이라 할 수 있다. 특히 퇴계와 율곡 이이(栗谷 李珥, 1536-1584)를 중심으로 형성된 조선성리학이 본격적으로 정착되는 데 커다란 역할을 한 사단칠정논쟁은 조선후기에 이르기까지 관련 논의가 지속되었다는 점에서 역사적인 중요성을 갖는다. 또한 이 논쟁은 사단과 칠정이라는 감정을 고리로 리기론(理氣論)과 심성론(心性論), 수양론(修養論)등 성리학의 핵심 영역을 포괄하여 전개되었다. 따라서 조선시대의 사단칠정론을 살펴보면, 조선성리학의 중요한 특성이나 역사적 흐름을 이해할 수 있다.
This dissertation seeks to illuminate Uam Song Si-Yeol (尤庵 宋時裂, 1607-1689)`s theory on the Four Beginnings (四端) and the Seven Emotions (七情). I believe it will help us to recognize his position in the history of Joseon`s Neo-Confucianism. Firstly, he inherited Vulgok Yi I(栗谷 李珥, 1536-1584)`s monistic view that ki (氣), individuating material force, is the only active agent which issues in the phenomenal mind. Like Vulgok, he stressed the inseparability of Ii and ki, and rejected Toegye Yi Hwang (退溪 李滉, 1501-1570)`s dualistic theory on the "mutual issuance (互發)"of li and ki. However, Song Si-Veol emphasized the sovereignty of Ii more than Yulgok did, and deepened Yulgok`s view that "Li is universal and Ki is particular (理通氣局)". Secondly, as for the common source of the Four and the Seven, Uam emphasized the human nature incorporated into its physical endowment rather than human nature in its original state. While the latter as the immanence of Ii is purely good, the former as the combination of Ii and ki has the possibility of evil in ordinary life. With respect to self-cultivation, he paid attention to the existential limit conditioned by psychophysical constitution. Thirdly, unlike Vulgok, Uam thoroughly applied the basic principle that "Ki issues and Li rides it (氣發理乘)" to the Four. As a result, he insisted that the Four is not always good according to the condition of ki, In this sense, by neglecting the superiority of the Four and suggesting the Seven`s comprehending the Four, he erased the ontological distinction between the Four and the Seven. Fourthly, on the basis of the possibility of the Four`s attaining unproper measure, he introduced the theory on the human mind (人心) and the Tao mind (道心). Because the Four and the Seven are no more the distinctive feelings, agenda was shifted from the Four-Seven discussion into the human mind-Tao mind dichotomy tht is determined by the observance of the social norm. Therefore, Uam stressed the practice of the objective social norm rather than the introvert cultivation. As we have seen, Song Si-Yeol denied the distinctive character of the Four as the autonomous self-realization of Ii and stressed the practice of objective social norm. In this way, he suggested a more coherent and realistic theory on the Four and the Seven than those of Toegye`s and Yulgok`s. And Uam, the most powerful leader of Ki-Ho school (畿湖學派) in seventeenth century, set an important agenda for subsequent generations in the history of Korean Neo-Confucianism.
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College of Humanities (인문대학)Religious Studies (종교학과)종교와 문화(Religion and Culture)종교와 문화(Religion and Culture) 21호(2011)
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