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Abrupt increase in heart rate during the transition from non-REM sleep to wakefulness and its utility for estimating sleep stages

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Authors
Chung, Gih Sung; Lee, Jeong Su; Hwang, Su Hwan; Jeong, Do-Un; Park, Kwang Suk
Issue Date
2010-09
Publisher
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Citation
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY; Vol.77 3; 288-288
Abstract
Since fluctuation of heart rate (HR) reflects the activation of the
autonomic nervous system (ANS) and ANS activity varies during sleep
according to the depth of sleep, HR variation is known to reflect the
change of sleep stages. However, it has been very difficult to estimate
the sleep stage transitions beyond a certain degree of accuracy with HR
only. If we can estimate sleep stage transition with higher accuracy by HR only, it will be clinically very useful. Therefore, we devised a
method for estimating the sleep stage transition from non-REM sleep
to a state of wakefulness based on the abrupt HR increase.
Electrocardiogram data were collected from 12 normal volunteers
(8 males and 4 females; age 27±2.34 years) during the whole night
polysomnography (PSG). Then, we detected the episodes of abrupt
HR increase for the whole night. Signal processing was used to
compensate for the slow fluctuation of HR during sleep and a
threshold was applied for the detection of abrupt HR increase. We
compared the result with the sleep stage findings read by the experts
from PSG with the standard method.
In contrast to other transitions among sleep stages, transitions
from any non-REM sleep stage to wakefulness showed significant HR
increase. The accuracy of the detection of transition to wakefulness
from non-REM sleep was 97±0.02%, using HR signal only. However,
HR did not remain in the increased state through the wakefulness,
but returned to the baseline rate slowly with adaptation. Therefore,
we found it difficult to estimate the extended wakefulness state with
HR only. During REM sleep, with HR generally higher than in non-
REM sleep, we also found it difficult to estimate the transition to
wakefulness using the HR increase criteria. In this study, we found
that there tends to be an abrupt HR increase in the transition of non-
REM sleep stage to wakefulness and it could be reliably used to
estimate the transition. The observed HR increase between non-REM
sleep and wakefulness seems to be caused by sudden sympathetic
activation from the parasympathetic dominance.
ISSN
0167-8760
Language
English
URI
https://hdl.handle.net/10371/77801
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2010.06.159
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College of Medicine/School of Medicine (의과대학/대학원)Biomedical Engineering (의공학전공)Journal Papers (저널논문_의공학전공)
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