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류큐제도(琉球諸島)의 선사시대문화(先史時代文化)개관: 연구의 현황과 과제 : The Prehistoric Cultures of the Ryukyu Islands

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다까미야, 히로에이

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서울대학교 비교문화연구소
비교문화연구, Vol.7 No.1, pp. 93-123
큐슈(九州)의 남단부터 대만 사이에 호상(孤狀)으로 분포하는 146개의 섬들(전체길이 약 1,2 00 km)은 일반적으로 남서제도(南西諸島)라고 불라고 있으나, 지리학상의 정식 병칭은 류큐열도(琉球列島)이다. 이 열도의 거의 중앙에 위치한 아마미(奄美)제도 이북은 현재의 가고시마(鹿兒島)현이고, 오키나와(沖繩)제도 이남은 오키나와현이다. 그러나 류큐왕국시대(琉球王國時代)에 아마미(奄美 諸島)는 류큐에 속하여 류큐문화권을 형성하였다. 이번은 이 류큐열도 가운데 남반부인 오키나와현의 고고학에 관해 개관해 보고자 한다.

The Ryukyu islands were connected by lana-bridges with the Asia continent at least twice in the Pleistocene period. The eight upper Pleistocene sites which produced Paleaolithic buman bones are reported. They all belong to homo sapiens (sapiens). However, no artifacts have been recovered to date from these sites, a present situation which prohibits the discussion of human activities in the period.

The distinguishing feature of the Ryukyuan Neolithic culture is the duality of its roots. That is its northern and southern derivations. The islands north of Okinawa belong to the culture area of Kyushu origin. On the other hand, Sakishima (Miyako and Yaeyama) islands belong to the wouthern group.

The Early Neolithic culture of Okinawa islands begins with Jomon culture, but is quite unique as compared to that of Japan mainlands. Through the Jomon period, pottery culture shows a gradual localization toward the end of the period in this region. The Sobata type pottery of kyushu, which is derived from the Korean comb-marked pottery, is distributed to Okinawa. A few types of Korean pottery are also found in several sites that show direct or indirect contacts with Korea. No domesticated animals were found, except dogs, which can be traced back to the Early Jomon period (ca. 5000y. B.P.). Agriculture is supposed to have occurred in the Final Jomon, but crops have so far been secured, although carbonized plant seeds were reported from a few sites.

The Yayai and Kofun cultures of Japan mainland do not distribute to the Ryukyu. From then, culture remains in a static state. The period is locally called "Late Neolithic or Late Shell Middle Age" and lasted until about the 12th century.

Pleistocene human bones were also found in Sakishima islands, which form the Southern culture area of the Ryukyus. However, no artifacts have been collected as in the cate of Okinawa islands. No Jomon nor Yayoi cultural influences have hitherto been attested in Sakishima area whose origin is thought to be somewhere in south, but it is of obscure origin. The oldest Neolithic culture so far recognized, called the Shimotabaru pottery type, begins around 3500y.B.P. and vanishes around 3000y.B.P. Next, nonpottery culture appears around 2500y.B.P. and lasts until about the 12th century. During the period, culture changes from the shell axe/adze tradition to the stone axe/adze tradition.
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