Bone formation on the apatite-coated zirconia porous scaffolds within a rabbit calvarial defect

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Kim, Hae-Won; Shin, Seung-Yun; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Lee, Hae-Hyoung; Chung, Chong-Pyoung; Lee, Yong-Moo; Rhyu, In-Chul

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zirconiarabbit calvarial defectbioceramic scaffoldbone formationapatite coating
Previously, a strong and bioactive ceramic scaffold consisting of a porous zirconia body coated with apatite double layers (fluorapatite (FA) as an inner layer and hydroxyapatite (HA) as an outer layer) was successfully fabricated. In this contribution, the authors investigate the in vivo performance of the engineered bioceramic scaffolds using a rabbit calvarial defect model. In particular, the porosity and pore size of the scaffolds are varied in order to observe the geometrical effects of the scaffolds on their bone formation behaviors. The scaffolds supported on a zirconia framework can be produced with an extremely high porosity (approximate to 84-87%), while retaining excellent compressive strength (approximate to 7-8 MPa), which has been unachievable in the case of pure apatite scaffolds (approximate to 74% porosity with approximate to 2MPa strength). The experimental groups used in this study include three types of zirconia scaffolds coated with apatite; high porosity (approximate to 87%) with large pore size (approximate to 500-700 mu m): AZ-HL, high porosity (approximate to 84%) with small pore size (approximate to 150-200 mu m): AZ-HS, and low porosity (approximate to 75%) with large pore size (approximate to 500-700 mu m): AZ-LL, as well as one type of HA porous scaffold: low porosity (approximate to 74%) with a large pore size (approximate to 500-700 mu m) for the purpose of comparison. The scaffolds prepared with dimensions of approximate to 10 mm (diameter) x 1.2 mm (thickness) are grafted in rabbit calvaria defects. The histological sections are made at 4 and 12 weeks after surgery and immunohistochemical analyses are performed on the samples. All of the specimens show a good healing response without adverse tissue reactions. Good healing is shown at 4 weeks post-surgery with the ingrowth of new bone into the macropore-channels of the scaffolds. The newly formed bone amounts to approximate to 19.9-24.2% of the initial defect area, depending on the scaffold type, but there is no statistical significance between the scaffold groups. However, the defects without the scaffolds (control group) show a significantly lower bone formation ratio (approximate to 4.3%). At twelve weeks after surgery, the extent of new bone formation is more pronounced in all of the scaffold groups. All of the scaffold groups show significantly higher bone formation ratios (26.7-46.9%) with respect to the control without the graft. In the comparison between the scaffold groups, those with high porosities (AZ-HL and AZ-HS) exhibit significantly higher bone formation as compared to the scaffold with low porosity (AZ-LL). Based on the present in vivo test performed within a rabbit calvaria defect model, it is concluded that the apatite-coated zirconia scaffolds show good bone forming ability and are considered to be a promising scaffolding material for bone regeneration since they possess a high level of both mechanical and biological properties.
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College of Dentistry/School of Dentistry (치과대학/치의학대학원)Dept. of Dentistry (치의학과)Journal Papers (저널논문_치의학과)
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