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Guanxi in Chinese Commerce: Informal Enforcement in Spanish Philippines

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Authors
Clemente, Tina S.
Issue Date
2013-04
Publisher
Institute of Economic Research, Seoul National University
Citation
Seoul Journal of Economics, Vol.26 No.2, pp. 203-238
Keywords
Ethnically homogeneous middleman groupsInformal sanctionsEnforcement
Abstract
How did Chinese merchants remedy opportunism in a prevailing scenario of weak state enforcement during the Spanish period in the Philippines? The paper attempts to analyze 19th century historical accounts in elucidating how the utilization of guanxi sanctions provides useful insights in addressing the gap between state enforcement and property rights violation. These sanctions constitute informal enforcement among Chinese merchants based on personalistic ties. With credible enforcement, Chinese principals could manage networks that facilitated merchandize trade throughout the Philippines. By the 19th century, Chinese networks consisting of Chinese merchants and agents became crucial in large scale wholesale and retail trade.
ISSN
1225-0279
Language
English
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/10371/82798
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College of Social Sciences (사회과학대학)Institute of Economics Research (경제연구소)Seoul Journal of EconomicsSeoul Journal of Economics vol.26 no.1~4 (2013)
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