S-Space College of Fine Arts (미술대학) Visual Arts Institute (조형연구소) Form Archives (조형 아카이브) Form Archives (조형 아카이브) vol.02 (2010)
6.25전쟁과 서울대학교 미술대학
Korean War and College of Fine Arts in Seoul National University
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 조형연구소
- Form archives, Vol.2, pp. 261-295
- 6.25전쟁; 서울대학교; 미술대학; 장발; 무명정치수; 부산; 종군화가; Korean War; Seoul National University; College of Fine Arts; Jang, Bal; Anonymous Political Prisoner; military artists; Busan
- In August 22, 1946, due to the resistance to the law, article number 102, Law for the establishment of the national universities in Seoul, Seoul National University students went on strike. erefore, the first actual classes started on September 28th, which was about a month later. As other universities, such as the Imperial College (경성제국대학), had already started classes, the Department of Fine Arts and Music in the College of Fine Arts were the only departments that were opened and offered classes to freshman students of Seoul National University. Consequently, the first graduating students in College of Fine Arts graduated in the fourth year of Seoul National University.
As Seoul was under the rule of North Korea 3 days after the war broke out, artists were brought in to draw portraits of Kim, Il–sung and Stalin. Also the art professors or students who could not move further south in time, or who could not hide, had to draw portraits of Kim, Il–sung and Stalin and make flags with slogans. After the South Korean army recaptured Seoul on September 28, the Chairman of the Korean Association of Art, Ko, Hee–dong, and the Dean of the College of Fine Arts in Seoul National University, Jang, Bal had played the key role in starting traitor evaluation. Around this time, the art professors and graduate students who majored in arts from Seoul National University joined the military as artists. They even received I.D. cards for being military artists. However, the problem of deciding on belonging to South or North Korea through ideological ideas or circumstances could not be avoided in Universities as well. Therefore, students had crossed over into South or North Korea, joined a commando unit, became an air student soldier (학도의용군), etc.
A lot of students, who participated in arts under the rule of North Korean Army, went to North Korea, and a few of them even became partisans since they were worried about the reprisal. Even during the chaos of the war, the College of Fine Arts in Seoul National University was able to exist by teaching in refuge coffee shops and temporary school buildings, moreover by fostering major Korean modern artists.
In a Busan refuge, the College of Fine Arts of Seoul National University became independent from the Department of Arts, Fine Arts major, and was considered to be an individual college itself. Also, since they had the first master s degree graduate students in 1952, they established a firm foundation for being the central place of to foster talented artists. e College of Fine Arts in Seoul National University had used a dining room in a sushi restaurant in Busan as a classroom. However, because the U.S. had provided support, they built a temporary school building in Song.do and held lectures and practiced arts there. Also, the College of Fine Arts even accepted students from North Korea to cultivate talented artists. A lot of talented students had applied to Seoul National University since the tuition was only one. tenth of other private colleges, and the school also gave out large amounts of scholarships.
Even during the war, the College of Fine Arts turned out graduates constantly every year and cultivated leaders in contemporary art; in the years 1951, 1952, 1953, they had turned out 14, 3, and 6 graduates, respectively. However, the scars due to the war such as, the traitor evaluation under the rule of the North Korean Army, the professors evaluation of students who rebelled and held kangaroo courts against the professors, and so on, have been named as trauma. The first Dean, Jang, Bals authority became the target of criticism, especially due to excessive anti-communism and using religious beliefs as the standard of evaluating professors. Although the truth of the boycott against Dean Jang, Bal during the war was ambiguous, the students harsh criticisms on curriculums that had personal perceptions on class contents could be considered as one part of the movement to restore their own autonomous right.
Moving south or north over the border signifies separation and continuity of severance, but some students who graduated from the College of Fine Arts in Seoul National University had worked in North Korea, and the students who moved south over the border could start a new kind of art in the College of Fine Arts. Also, since the school building was transferred over by the U.S. army due to the armistice, in 1953 Seoul National University returned to Seoul. As the College of Fine Arts had eventually settled in Dong-soong Dong, Seoul the following February, it took its place as the art educational institution, which fosters artists even when suffering from the aftereffects of the war.
1946년 8월 22일 군정법령 제102호 국립서울대학교 설립에 관한 법령에 대한
반발로서 맹휴(盟休)로 시작한 서울대학은 1개월 후인 9월 28일 첫 강의를 시작하였다. 9월 5일 경성대 이공학부 38명의 교직원 전원이 총사직을 결의하는
등 대대적인 국대안 반대운동으로 개강이 늦어진 때문이었다. 좌익계열에 의한 혼란 목적이라는 미군정이나 경무대의 발표와 달리 대학운영의 방식이 비민주적이고 미군정이 정치적으로 개입하며 교수들의 자치가 보장되지 않고 좌익계열로 보이는 교수들을 제거하려는 목적이 개입되었다는 점 때문에 국대안 반대운동은 1년 동안이나 계속되었다. 국대안에 반대하여 학교를 떠난 많은 학생들 중 일부는 사상검사에 의해 복교가 불허되었고, 국대안 문제로 떠난 교수들은 돌아올 수 없었다. 결국 좌익계열을 대학에서 제거하기 위한 구체적 실천으로서 1949년 학도호국단이 창설되었고 학생뿐만 아니라 교수까지도 편입되었던 정황은 국가지상, 민족지상주의에 따른 사상 정화 작업이 시작되었음을 알리는 사건 중 하나였다.