노동자 교육을 둘러싼 지식의 절합과 계몽의 정치성 -유길준의 노동야학독본 (勞動夜學讀本) 고찰- : Articulation of Knowledge and Politics of Enlightenment - Related with Laborers Education -

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서울대학교 인문학연구원
인문논총, Vol.69, pp. 407-445
『노동야학독본』유길준노동(자)지식지식인노동야학회보통지식계몽양의성Nodongyahakdokbon(『勞動夜學讀本』)Yu Giljunlabor(er)intellectualtextbookmeeting of labor night schoolcommon knowledgeenlightenmentdoble meaning
By considering Nodongyahakdokbon(『勞動夜學讀本』), this paper reveals the double meaning of the concept of labor inherent in enlightenment logic and the meaning and the limits of the sense of identity of the intellectual from a political and cultural viewpoint. There are, at the same time, two different kinds of concepts about laborers in Nodongyahakdokbon (『勞動夜學讀本』). One is a laborer as a member of the Chosun nation and another is a laborer as a neglected class of people. This occurred as a result of the situation under which nation ideology had been combined with the concept of labor introduced and settled in the age of the time of enlightenment. This paper compares Nodongyahakdokbon with Namgung Ok`s Gyoyukwolbo(『敎育月報』) and Yagakdokuhon, by Horie Hideo and Godai Sigeru, which were published around the same time. This study also deals with the acceptance of the theory of social evolution and the thought of Confucius and Mencius which influenced the publication of the textbook of Yu Giljun. In addition, this work finds as the root cause of the insufficient response of the laborers towards Nodongyahakdokbon in its high price, unpractical and difficult contents, and coercion towards the figure of adaptive labor. In this aspect, Nodongyahakdokbon acts as important data in exposing the concept and value of labor and the importance of the education of laborers in the development of modern society. But it had an obvious limit in that it could not envisage the possibility of the independent educational participation of laborers or the making of the culture of the laborers.
1905년을 전후로 조선에는 공립과 사립학교뿐 아니라 야학이 급증한다. 1890년대부터 이미 조선에는 근대적 공장들이 출현하고 일본 자본이 생산에 투자되면서 근대적 노동자층이 형성되기 시작했다.1) 이 과정에서 농민집단의 분화가 이루어지고 임노동자가 출현한다. 조선의 농민들은 현물이 아닌 돈으로 노동의 대가를 받기 시작했으며, 광산과 철도사
업, 조선 내 회사의 증가 추세 속에서 다양한 직업군으로 분화되어 간다.
유길준이 노동야학을 염두에 두고 ꠓ노동야학독본ꠗ(1908)을 간행한 것 역시 이러한 사회적 분위기 속에서 이해될 수 있다.1908년 발간된 유길준의 ꠓ노동야학독본ꠗ은 보통교육을 받지 못한 노동자를 위해 간행된 교과서라고 할 수 있다. 1909년 1월 26일 「황성신문」광고는 이 독본이 노동자의 덕성 함양과 지식의 계발을 목적으로 간행되었을 뿐 아니라, 보통지식을 가진 동포도 읽을 수 있다고 말한다.
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College of Humanities (인문대학)Institute of Humanities (인문학연구원)Journal of humanities (인문논총)Journal of Humanities vol.69/70 (2013) (인문논총)
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