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조선 태조 4년 國行水陸濟 설행과 그 의미 : National Ritual for the Beings of Water and Land(Gukhaeng Suryuk-jae, 國行水陸濟) held in the 4th year of the Jeseon King Taejo(太祖)s reign, and its Meaning

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서울대학교 규장각한국학연구원
한국문화, Vol.62, pp. 199-234
國行水陸濟水陸儀文恭讓王眞影三和寺見巖寺觀音窟National Ritual for the Beings of Water and Land(Guk"haeng Su"ryuk-jae)The Ritual Text for the Rite of Water and Land(Su"ryuk Eui"mun)Portrait of King Gong"yang-wangSam"hwa-sa templeGyeon"am-sa templeGwan"eum-gul temple
Examined in this article, is Gukhaeng Suryuk-jae which was held at the Samhwa-sa temple(三和寺), Gyeonam-sa temple(見巖寺), and the Gwaneum-gul temple(觀音窟) in 1395(the 4the year of king Taaejos reign). It was the first Gukhaeng Suryuk-jae performed in the Joseon Dynasty. This Suryuk-jae was arranged as a Salvation ceremony(薦度) for the dead King Gongyang-wang(恭讓王), as well as the Wang royal family(王氏) mostly eliminated a year ago. This rite was designed to reveal the generosity and benevolence of the new dynasty and the new king at the helm. It was an event with a political agenda for sure, but the decision to choose Suryuk-jae as the primary method of salvation rites for the Wangs was instrumental in enabling Suryuk-jae to become a rather popular form of Buddhist ritual throughout the Joseon dynasty. And added to that, the procedures observed in this Suryuk-jae became the basic model for Gukhaeng Suryuk-jae which followed later on.

Analyzed in this article are relevant and extant data which concerned the National Suryuk-jae rituals held in 1395, and as a result a mistake caused by misinterpretation of old documents was rectified. Previously, it was believed that King Taejo printed and published total of 37 volumes of Suryuk Euimun(水陸儀文), but reexamination of the materials reveals that the number of volumes was actually 21. Also the contents of Record of the Suryuk-jae held at Samhwa-sa in the Eulhae year(乙亥年三和寺水陸濟疏) are presented as a new material for examination of the academic community. It is practical to suggest the possibility of the Samhwa-sa temple being the Weonchal(願刹) monastery of King Gongyang-wang and the portrait(眞影) of King Gongyang-wang was held that themple during performing Suryuk-jae for him. In this article, it is newly determined that the National Suruk-jae in 1395 was actually not arranged for the spirits of the people killed in the midst of the birth of a new dynasty as mentioned in previous studies and instead that the objects of the rituals for each of the three temples were predesignated.
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