고구려 지명 혈구군(穴口郡)의 구(口)에 대하여 : On Ku(口) of Hyeolgu-gun(穴口郡) in the Gogureoic Toponym

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서울대학교 인문대학 동아문화연구소
동아문화, Vol.50, pp. 1-43
Goguryeoic toponymSamguksagiAltaic language familyHyeolgugungochaholchaAbstract Reconstructed Form(ARF)akariakurimouth穴口郡古次忽次
본고는 고구려 지명 혈구군(穴口郡)의 고구려어 대응 표현 갑비고차(甲比古次) 중 갑비를 다룬 임홍빈(2008)에 이어지는 논문으로, 여기서는 혈구군의 구(口)에 대한 대응 표기 고차(古次)와 관련되는 문제를 검토하기로 한다. 임홍빈(2008)에서는 강화도(江華島)의 고구려 이름 갑비고차(甲比古次)의 갑비(甲比)를 중세어의 /kumu/(穴)에 대응되는 어형으로 보았다. /*kapi~kumu/와의 대응에서 어두의 /k/는 완전한 대응을 보이는 것이며, 어중의 /p~m/의 대응도 상당히 설득력을 가지는 것이다. 임홍빈(2008)에서 /*kapi/는 강화도의 고구려 지명과 관련하여 나루[津]의 의미를 가졌던 것으로 보았다. 나루는 배가 드나드는 혈(穴)이기 때문이다. 본고는 갑비고차에서 그 나머지 부분 즉 고차(古次)가 어떠한 의미와 형태를 가졌던 것인가에 대하여 필자로서 가능한 가설을 제기하는 것을 목적으로 한다. 특히 알타어 어족 가설에 대하여 이 어휘 항목이 가지는 의의를 중시하고자 한다.

This paper attempts to reconstruct the correct form and meaning of the word kocha (古次) that corresponds to ku (口) in the Goguryeoic toponym Hyeolgu-gun (穴口郡) in Samguksagi (三國史記). As to kocha (古次) and the analogous holcha (忽次), a couple of hypothesis have been put forth: Yang (1942, 1965) and Shin (1958) suggested that the words referred to a cape (串) or a promontory (岬), even though they acknowledged that the words were comparable to the Old Japanese *kuti mouth. Lee (1968) saw that the word form kocha (古次) and holcha (忽次) showed dialectal differences in the Gogureoic toponym. On the other hand, Kim(1968) said

that the two forms originated from different sources: one originated from the word referring to mouth (口), the other from the word indicating promontory (岬).

However, it is dubious that kocha (古次) and holcha (忽次) or Chinese letter ku (口) should always be interpreted as referring to a cape (串) or a promontory (岬) in Gogureoic toponyms. This paper emphasizes that the shape of the mouth of the beasts like tigers, lions, dogs, foxes, cats, etc. are very similar to a cape (串) or promontory (岬) in that the mouth of a beast is lowering from the back jaws to the front, just like a cape (串) or a promontory (岬) heading for the sea. This means that the mouth sense and the cape sense of kocha (古次) or holcha (忽次) form a polysemy, not a homonym in Gogureoic toponym. And this paper suggested that the

Goguryeoic word form for kocha (古次) and holcha (忽次) be /*kutsi/, considering the vowel shift and Old Japanese form *kuti, and other altaiic forms indicating mouth. The Altaic lexical entries relative to a semantic category mouth in Starostin et al. (2003) are the forms like *kiāč́ ̀ù, *àgá and *ǎḿ o. Starostin et al. (2003) treats the Old Japanese /*kuti/ at the entry *kiā́čù. However, the Altaic lexical items listed in the entry *kiā́č̀ù in Starostin et al. (2003) cannot be seen to be related with the Old Japanese /*kuti/. The Altaic lexical entries comparable to the Korean mouth might be said the forms listed in the entries like *àgá and *ǎḿ o. It is claimed that the proper item treated in the entry *àgá should be the Korean word /akari/ or /akuri/ indicating the animal's mouth or the entrance of objects. This paper claims that the Altaic varieties could be captured by postulating the Abstract Reconstructed Form (ARF) like *AKVTW, in which *A stands for the initial vowel, *K the first consonant, *V the second vowel, and *T the second consonant, and *W the final vowel.
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College of Humanities (인문대학)Center for East Asian Studies (동아문화연구소)Journal of S.N.U. Institute for Asian Studies (동아문화)동아문화 Volume 50 (2012)
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