한국 전래동요의 개념과 범주: 부녀요와 동요의 관계에 주목하여 : The Concept and Category of Korean Traditional Children's Song:Focused on the Relationship between Children's Song and Women's Song

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서울대학교 음악대학 동양음악연구소
동양음악, Vol.31, pp. 15-50
The purpose of this essay is to analyze Korean traditional children's songs which are learned and transmitted during children's developing period (0~12 year of age), focusing specifically on the relationship between children and their nurturers. This essay mainly divides the songs into two categories according to who has created and transmitted them: the songs by caregivers and these by children. The songs by caregivers indicate songs that mothers or grandmothers sing for their children or grandchildren between the ages of 0-6. These songs also can be split into two: the ones sung from the perspective of caregivers and those sung from the perspective of children. The songs sung by caregivers from their perspective are based on the lullaby or cradle song but sometimes can be found in the grown-up's musical category. The songs from the perspective of children are composed of uncomplicated musical language dealing with nursery stories or natural objects such as birds, fish, flowers, the sun, and stars. These types of songs contain educational and emotional values which intend to foster children's language and counting skills. Children also sing themselves playing games relevant to their age or group. These songs are much more simple and immature than the

aforementioned song types, and are normally combined with games or accompany play. The songs sung by children are related to the environmental characteristics of a traditional age when women played the primary role in raising, developing, educating and socializing their children intellectually and emotionally. We can find easily grown-up musical characteristics in children's songs, which means it can be difficult to distinguish them from the songs of their nurturers. Yet we can find true value and meaning in the common ownership of these songs by children and the women who have cared for them.

전래동요는 예전부터 어린이들에 의해 구전(口傳)되어온 노래를 가리키는 것으로 전승동요, 구전동요로도 불리고 있다. 어린아이가 태어나 자라는 과정에서 접하게 되는 외부세계와 내면의 동심세계가 어린아이의 시각과 언어로 총체적으로 담겨있는 노래이다. 전래동요는 문학과 음악분야에서 구전민요의 한 갈래로 일찍이 연구되기 시작했으며, 민요의 원형질을 담은 단순성으로 말미암아 꾸준히 연구되어 왔다. 전래동요에 관한 논의는 크게 국문학적 연구와 아동의 문화적 특성에 관한 연구, 그리고 음악적 연구로 진행되고 있으며 전통음악유산을 계승하는 교육적 측면에서도 그 중요성과 활용가치가 높이 평가되어 왔다. 그러나 대부분의 논의가 전래동요로 분류된 노래들의 범주가 분명하지 않은 상태에서 이루어졌음을 발견하게 된다. 오늘날 창작동요의 창작 주제가 어른들인 데 비하여 전래동요는 구전되는 것이기에 특별히 전승이나 가창 주체에 대해 안기 어려운 때문인 이유도 있다. 혹은 막연히 전래동요의 발생과 전승의 주체를 어린이로 보는 관점이 우세한 것도 사실이다. 전래동요의 범주나 전승주체에 대한 논의는 쉽지 않아 보이지만 동요의 본질을 드러내 줄 수 있는 중요한 단초가 될 수 있다.
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College of Music (음악대학)Asian Music Research Institute (동양음악연구소)Journal of the Asian Music Research Institute (동양음악, JAMRI)동양음악 Volume 31 (2009)
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