스탈린 체제와 소련 사회 : Soviet Society Under Stalin

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서울대학교 러시아연구소
러시아연구, Vol.7, pp. 263-296
The predominant feature of the Soviet society during the NEP years was

its "du머" structure: coexistence of town and countryside, of public and

private sectors, and of proletarian and peasant cultures. Although it may

have provided a gradua1 and evolutionary model for socia1ist society in its

own right, the NEP order showed its inherent contradictions stemming from

its "dua1" nature in the development of the actua1 relations between the

Soviet regime and society. Sta1in destroyed the NEP structure and built the

new St려inist system through rapid industria1ization and forced

collectivization. In the course of this state-led "revolution from above",

Soviet society underwent an enormous stuctura1 transformation, and new

socia1 relations and sentiments were shaped.

A large number of peasants migrated to the cities and were absorbed

into the urban industria1 workforce. These new workers brought about a

big change in the composition of industria1 labor. Accordingly, heterogeneity

among the workers increased with the development of the Stali띠st system.

at the same time, they sowed individua1istic behaviour pursuing persona1

interests at the expense of both soci허ist orientation and collective solidarity

in their interaction with the regime and factory managers. The peasants,

who remained in the countryside, at first responded to the collectivization

drive with a variety of resistant moves. However, once the collective farm

system was irreversibly established across the country, they a1so got

adapted to the new life on the farm in search for the opportunities to

rea1ize their individua1 interests. Intellectua1s - professiona1s, specia1ists, and

those employed in the govemment administration - were not the exception

to this trend of individua1istic pursuit. Especia11y after the Sta1in regimes shift to anti-ega1itarian and conservative policies in the early 1930s, they

showed a strong tendency toward the acquisition of materia1 wea1th and

philistinistic kul tumost .

The above revea1s a very important aspect of the Sta1inist system that is

essenti머 to the understanding of the Soviet version of modemization under

the officia1 slogan of socia1ist construction. However, the Sta1inist system

gave birth to various socia1 groups which in re머ity pursued individua1

interests detracting from socia1ist ideology, while taking the regimes

demands formally.
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College of Humanities (인문대학)Institute for Russian, East European & Eurasian Studies (러시아문화권연구소)러시아연구 (Russian Studies)러시아연구 Volume 07 (1997)
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