발화의 다성 구조 - 바흐찐의 다성 이론에 대한 언어학적 접근 : Polyphonic Structure of Utterance - A Linguistic Approach to the Bakhtins Theory of Polyphony

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서울대학교 러시아연구소
러시아연구, Vol.11 No.2, pp. 321-340
언어적 다성바흐찐Linguistic PolyphonyBakhtin
Utterances can be polyphonic, and this fact was first put forward by Bakhin [Voloshnov](929) who criticized both Humboldtian and Saussurian orientations in linguistics for their inability to explain the socio-dialogical

character of utterance, which, according to his view, constitutes the essential property of language. But Bakhtin himself did not continue to develope his penetrating idea into an elaborated linguistic concept. Rather, he simplifies the notion of polyphony by referring it to those cases where, in one and the same literary text, different voices coexist without ones prevailing to the others. However, such a conception of polyphony, rooted in the entirely empirical distinction between words of Myself" and of the Other", does not provide methodologically effective tools to analyze exactly the complicated polyphonic structures of utterance.

Thus, this work presents a linguistic version of polyphony, departing from the theory of utterance elaborated by Bally(1932) and its revision made by Ducrot(1984, 1989). It argues that polyphony arises from discordance among three different subjects underlying the utterance: utterance subject, communication subject, modal subject(s). First, one can say that, according to Ducrot(1989), the three subjects of the linguistic utterance are, respectively, transferred to the positions of author, narrator, and point(s) of view in the utterance of novel; then, each position, being obliged to express itself by the linguistic utterance, possesses a theoretically unlimited possibility to double and redouble the roles of three subjects. Such a linguistic conception can reveal more effectively, for example, the real polyphonic character of the speech uttered by the hero of Dostoevskys than the explanations given by Bakhtin(l929): it arises from the violent discordance between two different modal subjects (=hero and the Other") within the same utterance, but not from a tensed internal polemic of the hero with invisible replications from the Other". Finally, according to our linguistic conception of polyphony, the utterance of novel from its origin is necessarily polyphonic in that the linguistic structure of novel itself presupposes the non-identity among the positions of author, narrator, and point(s) of view.
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College of Humanities (인문대학)Institute for Russian, East European & Eurasian Studies (러시아문화권연구소)러시아연구 (Russian Studies)러시아연구 Volume 11 Number 1/2 (2001)
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