S-Space College of Humanities (인문대학) Institute for Russian, East European & Eurasian Studies (러시아문화권연구소) 러시아연구 (Russian Studies) 러시아연구 Volume 21 Number 1/2 (2011)
카자흐스탄의 카스피해 광구 개발 기업들의 CSR 고찰: 기후 및 환경 문제에 대한 위기관리를 중심으로
Reflection on CSRs of Companies at Energy Blocks on Caspian Sea: Centering on Risk Management on Climate and Environmental Problems
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 러시아연구소
- 러시아연구, Vol.21 No.2, pp. 279-308
- This paper aims to diagnose interaction of energy projects and environmental risk factors in the northern part of Caspian Sea in Kazakhstan and reflect on CSR implemented by two international consortiums, NCOC and TCO at Kashagan and Tengiz respectively, additionally referring to Chevron`s CSR in the world and BP`s CSR in Azerbaijan. Then it intends to reflect on governmental policies to tackle environmental risk factors in energy sector and suggest ideas for better risk management at energy blocks in Kazakhstan. Continental climate and geological conditions of offshore Kashagan and onshore Tengiz blocks in the Northern part of Caspian Sea are too severe for NCOP and TCO to overcome, and the conditions will be aggravated by intensifying climate change and environmental pollutions. The international consortiums of the two super-mega projects have not paid sufficient attention to their negative impact on ecosystem and local communities adjacent to the projects such as emission of sour gas and other toxic gases like mercaptan, GHG emission, water pollution and lack in water, etc. Consequently diverse climate and environmental risk factors may in turn threaten the environmental security of the energy projects. NCOC and TCO have been punished by Kazakhstan government for their chronic violation of environmental regulations since 2007. The resource nationalism policy taken by Kazakhstan government may reflect partially the government`s intensifying awareness of climate change and environmental degradation in energy industry. Even if energy companies in Kazakhstan have published considerably rational and viable CSR reports since 2008, containing risk management system to gas flaring, sour gas emission, water pollution, still their CSRs and Chevron`s and BP`s CSRs do not make big difference in reality. The reason may lie in the companies` opportunistic and dual practices of CSR strategies, based on economist principle, which result in the companies` highly vulnerability to climate and environmental, geopolitical and economic risk factors such as climate change, environmental degradation, national government`s resource nationalist policy and prevalent corruption in local societies. Their economy-centered and Western-centric CSRs should be transformed into alternative CSR models both universal and tailored to local conditions, especially to fulfil local people`s basic need. Kazakhstan government, as a national government with the biggest potential to play the role of leader in risky society, is required to guide energy companies and the whole nation to the way of sustainable development by establishing joint project with governmental, corporate and civil stakeholders and searching for alternative risk management and sustainable energy development systems.