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저성취 학습부진아동을 위한 학습전략 프로그램에 대한 분석적 고찰
Critical Review of Cognitive-Learning Strategies Instruction for Students with Severe Learning Difficulties

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Authors
신종호
Issue Date
2002-03
Publisher
서울대학교 교육연구소
Citation
아시아교육연구, Vol.3 No.1, pp. 63-88
Keywords
학습전략학습부진아동정보처리자기조절학습
Abstract
저성취 학습부진아동은 자신이 가지고 있는 일반능력에 비해 현저하게 낮은 학업성취를 나타내는 아동을 말한다. 경험적 연구결과들은 이들 아동의 심각한 학습문제가 학습과제를 의미 있게 처리하는데 필요한 학습전략을 효과적, 효율적으로 활용하지 못하는 것과 관련이 있음을 보여준다. 하지만, 이들 저성취 학습부진아동들을 대상으로 학습전략 프로그램을 실시했을 경우 일반아동과 마찬가지로 학습전략들을 적절히 활용하며, 그 결과 성공적인 학업성취를 나타낸다고 한다. 본 논문의 주목적은 저성취 학습부진아동들을 위해 개발된 전통적인 정보처리과정중심 교육프로그램(예: 지각-동작 협응력, 정보처리 선호양식, 기억술중심 교육프로그램)을 비판적으로 분석하고, 내용학습과 전략학습의 통합모형으로서 제안되고 있는 학습전략 교육프로그램에 대해 구체적으로 살펴보는 것이다. 이와 관련하여 저성취 학습부진아동들이 가지고 있는 학습전략 활용과 관련한 인지적 특성을 살펴보았으며, 성공적인 학습활동을 위해 왜 학습전략 교육프로그램이 필요한지를 학습이론적, 철학적/인식론적, 그리고 경험과학적 근거에 비추어 살펴보고자 하였다. 마지막으로, 실제 교육현장에서 학습전략 교육프로그램을 성공적으로 실시하기 위해서 현행 내용학습중심의 교육과정 운영실제에 대한 고려의 필요성, 학습전략 프로그램 실시를 위한 교사 교육의 필요성, 학습전략 평가방법의 개발 필요성, 그리고 적극적인 학습참여 촉진을 위한 동기전략 개발 필요성에 대한 논의가 이루어졌다.



Students with severe learning problems experience learning failures partly due to ineffective and inefficient use of cognitive learning strategies. Cognitive learning strategies are specific thinking strategies used for content-learning activities, leading to more effective and efficient learning outcomes. The strategies include three specific mental operations: interpolation, extrapolation, and reinterpretation. Instructional programs of cognitive learning strategies are needed for students with severe learning problems because research findings have shown these students can benefit from such programs. Learning-strategy instructional programs developed for low-achieving students can be classified into three types: perception-based, mnemonics-based, and integrative-strategy instructional programs. Perception-based instructional programs are designed to train perceptual-motor coordination abilities and match instructional presentation modes with learners' perceptual preferences. Research shows that perception-based instructional programs are not successful in enhancing learning outcomes of students with severe learning problems. Mnemonics-based instructional programs are designed to enhance acquisition, retention, and retrieval of information and include such strategies as visualization, verbal elaboration, and categorization. The programs, however, have limited effects on students' learning in subject areas because they less emphasize integrative use of various learning strategies needed for learning interrelated contents, not pieces of information. Integrative-strategy instructional programs have been developed such that students are taught the strategies through content-learning activities. Therefore, learning strategies are considered ordinary part of content learning so that it is more likely that students apply and generalize them to other learning situations. Integrative-strategy instructional programs include Reciprocal Teaching, Process-Based Instruction, Strategies Intervention Model, and Integrative Strategy Instruction. Among these, the programs of Reciprocal Teaching and Strategies Intervention Model have been supported by empirical studies. Practical factors should be considered to implement learning-strategy instructional programs successfully in school settings. First, currently available textbooks are composed of contents themselves, not of how to learn those contents. Integrative composition of textbooks with contents and learning strategies should be considered, especially for students with severe learning problems. Second, successful implementation of strategy instruction requires teachers to be well prepared. Pre- and in-service teacher training of learning-strategy instructional programs should be provided for teachers before the programs are implemented in school settings. Third, effective instructional practices are accompanied by formative evaluation tools used to assess program effectiveness. Therefore, assessment procedures to measure students' abilities to command learning strategies should be developed with strategy instructional programs. Finally, learning-strategy instructional programs include not only cognitive aspects of learning, but also affective aspects of learning. Motivation strategies, therefore, should be included in the programs to make students participate in strategy-learning activities more actively.
ISSN
1229-9448
Language
Korean
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/10371/88942
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College of Education (사범대학)Education Research Institute (교육연구소)아시아교육연구 (Asian Journal of Education)아시아교육연구 (Asian Journal of Education) Volume 03 Number 1/2 (2002)
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