내러티브란 무엇인가? : A theoretical investigation on the concept of narrative: Storytelling, meaning-making, and communication

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서울대학교 교육연구소
아시아교육연구, Vol.7 No.4, pp. 27-47
최근 들어 교육학에서 내러티브에 대한 관심이 고조되면서 내러티브와 관련된 연구들이 여러 측면에서 이루어지고 있다. 이들을 크게 나누면 교수-학습 방법으로 내러티브의 활용을 다룬 연구논문, 교사교육에서 교사로서의 전문성을 발달시키는 수단으로 내러티브를 보는 논문, 내러티브 탐구방법을 소개하는 연구논문, 내러티브 탐구양식을 활용한 경험연구 등이 있다. 내러티브의 활용에 초점을 둔 연구물들의 축적에 비해서 내러티브의 개념에 대해서 체계적으로 탐색한 연구는 상대적으로 미약하다. 이에 본 연구는 내러티브 개념에 대한 체계적 이해를 보완해야 한다는 문제의식 속에서 내러티브 개념의 논리와 언어가 무엇인지를 탐색해보고자 하였다. 이와 같은 연구 목적을 가지고 이 글에서는 첫째, 내러티브 사고의 필요성을 뒷받침할 수 있는 다양한 이론적 입장들을 살펴보고, 둘째, 이야기의 결과물, 사고의 양상, 커뮤니케이션이라는 세 가지 범주에 비추어 내러티브 개념의 논리와 속성을 고찰하였으며, 셋째, 내러티브 개념이 학교교육에 주는 시사점에 대해서 논의하였다.

Many studies have recently emphasized the use of narrative in education as a teaching and learning method, a form of inquiry, ways of curriculum development, and so on. Yet still there is a need to clarify what the word 'narrative' refers to. Therefore, this study intended to clarify what the concept of narrative means. To approach this task, first of all, I investigated a body of research that prop the importance of narrative in education. Postmodernism teaches that we should recognize multiple ways of knowing beyond the logico-mathematical ways of understanding the world. Constructivism insists that human being play an active role in developing a personally constructed understanding of the world through a process of dialogic interchange. Those perspectives support for narrative understanding as a major meaning-making strategy and a communicative medium. In addition, I examined several studies on human cognition beyond Piagetian approaches that make significant contributions to help us understand the role of narrative understanding in knowing, understanding, and interpreting the world. Then I investigated the concept of narrative on the basis of the frameworks of narrative as story, narrative as mode of consciousness, narrative as communication. We may conceptualize a narrative work as any form of telling, where a telling involves a teller or narrator, an audience, and a subject. We interpret our lives by weaving narrative plots in which the incidents, people, actions, emotions, ideas, and settings of our experience are brought together, inter-related, and situated. In this sense, we can say that narrative both shapes and informs our knowledge of ourselves and the world. Also, the most important aspect proposed for consideration is the relation between narrative as work or product and narrative as mode of consciousness; the relations among the author, the narrative work, the audience. When two consciousness meet through the vehicle of the narrative work, when the meeting becomes dialogic, there is the possibility of reflection of self in other and other in self. In sum, the concept of narrative is not one but all of these, but a synthesis of all three. I concluded with a discussions of how the conventional assumptions and expectations underlying education could be rethought if the narrative perspective is taken seriously.
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College of Education (사범대학)Education Research Institute (교육연구소)아시아교육연구 (Asian Journal of Education, AJE)아시아교육연구 (Asian Journal of Education) Volume 07 Number 1/4 (2006)
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