서울시 商業機能의 空間構造

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서울대학교 국토문제연구소
지리학논총, Vol.17, pp. 59-73
This paper analysed the spatial structure of commercial activities in contemporary Seoul and examined the form which it would change into, focusing on commercial activities of which the locational changes are more frequent than other functions. For a large urban center as Seoul where the influence of distribution activities, the spatial structure of commercial activities is particularly important to understand the urban structure and system.

This study, using the raw data by administrative districts(Dong) as to the four digit industries such as wholesales, retails, restaurants & hotels based on the Standard Industrial Classification(SIC), considered the spatial changes of distribution of commercial activities in Seoul and analysed the characteristics by classed drawn from the cluster analysis.

The findings of the study can be summarized into the following; First, the overall spatial structure of commerce in Seoul shows an obvious functional contrast between a decrease of CBD and an increase of Kangnam-gu and Kangdong-gu, which reflects changes of commercial range and distribution structure centering on two areas. More specifically, however, specialized and highly qualified wholesales, retails, and restaurants & hotels are reinforcing in the old CBD while functions such as conveniences are transferring to other commercial ranges.

Second, the factor analysis reveals a close relation between the function and the location. Convenience shows a highly dispersed pattern over the whole areas, whereas specialized goods and selective goods are strongly center-oriented.

Third, in the cluster analysis there are two nuclei in the class structure of commercial areas in Seoul, respectively in the old CBD and in Yongdengpo, Yoeuido areas, and the following third class has relatively less developed showing a considerable gap with the second class. Although the characteristics of the class structure are mostly similar to those of foreign large cities, none of the concentric, sectoral or multi-nuclei pattern can fully explain the spatial structure. It is suggested, however, that multi-nuclei and sectoral characteristics will gradually prevail over the concentric one.

Fourth, as it moves from the third class to the first class, there is an increasing rate of wholesales and a decreasing rate of retails and restaurants & hotels in the functional aspect. And in the formal aspect, there is a strong tendency of Nucleation in the first class, Ribbon in the second class and Core in the third class.

These findings can bring about two ensuing discussions;

First is a decline of the third class. Recently, as the distribution sector develops preferring large scale retails, the conventional small scale retails are declining, which will lead centers of lower class to an impoverishment. Researches in this respect -a decline of lower hierarchy centres- were mostly carried out in rural areas, but similar findings in the large cities are enough to be paid attention to. As such, it can be argued that commercial centers covering each distirict need to be appropriately fostered for an effective management of space.

Second is a close relationship among the function, location and the form. Some industries are decentralizing from the core, that is, from the first class to the lower classes, whereas other industries still prefer to concentrate in the core. This reflects a locational difference in accordance with the function they perform. Likewise, due to the diverse forms influenced by the function, some tend to locate in the form of Nucleation and still others in the form of Ribbon. Although this is, in a sense, similar to the result suggested by Berry, the difference in the form of inter-classes are even more remarkable in Seoul than that of intra-classes revealed by Berry.

In case of Seoul, it was somewhat difficult to present a well-fitted spatial framework because of the unplanned expansion of the city and the concurrent complexity of its spatial structure. Besides, this study has a limitation of giving its priority to the function. Following researches, with consumers as the central concern, are highly encouraged for a deeper understanding of spatial structure and commercial range.
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College of Social Sciences (사회과학대학)Institute for Korean Regional Studies (국토문제연구소)지리학논총 (Journal of Geography)지리학논총 Volume 17 (1990)
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