農村地域의 變化와 農業經營의 性格에 關한 硏究 - 永川郡의 두 村落을 事例로 : A Study on the Changes of Rural Areas and Variations of Farm Management by Types of Farm Households

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서울대학교 국토문제연구소
지리학논총, Vol.18, pp. 21-39
This study aims to compare the farm management and land use pattern by types of farm house holds cased on the age of householder and household structure. In addition, this study investigates the agricultural trends of two regions, which are different in distance from large city (Taegu-shi(. The study regions is Ogil-dong (Daechang-myon, Youngchon-gun) and Gugeon-dong (Hwanam-myon, Yongchon-gun). The result from the questionnaire survey are primarily used for the analysis.

The research findings are summed up as follows.

1. Each of the regions has experienced a dramatic population decrease mostly of the youths and men in their forties. Ogil-dong located near Teagushi was, however, high in the extent of outmigration and showed a great difference from Gujeon-dong in the numbers of non-farm and part-time farm. These differences in the number of coumigrants and part-time farm as inducing factors of regional variations in the conditions of the frequency of labour exchange, and the distribution of farming machines, thereby revealing a sharp contrast among regions in the type of farm management and land use. Ogil-dong, adjacent to a large city, cultivated primarily staple grains and fruit growing which need a little amount of labour input and are easy to be mechanized, while more labor intensive crops such as cigarette and vegetables are prevalent in Gujeon-dong.

2. The farm management and land use pattern are different in types of farm households based on the age of householder and household structure. Household type with householder, less than 60 years old, and family members in a direct line (Group 2) has larger and more intensive farming. But household type(Group 3), in which all offsprings have outmigrated and its householder are more than 60 years old, was small and ectensive farming. The other two types(Group 1 and 4) have intermediate level between the two former rypes in each index.

Meanwhile, the specialization tendency of farming in the study regions was so slight that the difference in types of farm household is invisible. Most farms are diversified farming, concentrating on rice. These results of the analysis reflect the fact that the size and type of farming change in accordance with household life cycle. As farm evolves in lith cycle, its condition of labour force and size of household expenses are changed. Accordingly, farm is characterized by self-suffering farming which is determined by two factors, namely family labour force and household expenses.

3. The fundamental pattern of variations of farm management by types of household is quite similar in both of regions, but shows a somewhat difference in specific details between two regions. In Ogil-dong, adjacent to a large city, there exists a striking difference by the household types in farming size, while in Gujeon-dong located, more distant from a large city, it is so in landuse pattern. Regional difference as this is attributable to difference in condition of labour force between two regions. Namely, in Ogil-dong, the decelopment of the labour productivity - that is, expansion of the size of farming -, owing to the relatively unfavourable labor condition, while Gujeon-dong seeks a direction of increasing the land productivity by utilizing the relatively abundant labour force.
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College of Social Sciences (사회과학대학)Institute for Korean Regional Studies (국토문제연구소)지리학논총 (Journal of Geography)지리학논총 Volume 18 (1991)
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