S-Space College of Social Sciences (사회과학대학) Institute for Korean Regional Studies (국토문제연구소) 지리학논총 별호 지리학논총 별호 Volume 18/19 (1995)
空間組織의 觀點에서 본 韓國行政區域의 問題와 改編方向
Spatial Organization of Adlllinistrative Area in Korea : ProbleIl1s and Alternatives
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 국토문제연구소
- 지리학논총 별호, Vol.19, pp. 1-235
- administrative area; settlement system; activity space; regional structure; economy of scale; spatial externality; participation of residents; financial autonomy; 행정구역; 정주체계; 지역구조; 공간조직; 생활권; 광역생활권; 지역생활권; 중심지; 규모의 경제; 공간적 외부성; 주민참여; 재정자립
- This study investigates the spatial organization of administrative area to define the problems and to seek feasible alternatives. First, organization principles of administrative area are examined through literature review and case studies on regional characteristics and reasonable conditions of administrative area.
Second, the historical transformation of administrative area is described.
Third, contemporary problems in administration zoning system are defined, focusing on the conflictual relation between regional structure and administrative area. Finally, based on the analyses above, the alternatives to the contemporary problems are discussed. rhe findings of this study are as follows:
Each administrative area has complex and multi-faced regional characteristics. The organization principles of administrative area have been influenced by mutually conflictual conditions such as economy of scale, spatial externality(spill-over effect), political participation of residents, convenience of residents, financial autonomy of local government, correspondence of administrative area with substantial region. However, these can be summarized into two essential principles, political administration principle and spatial organization principle. One is the principle of threshold to facilitate political administration functions. The other is the principle of activity space to improve regional correspondence with substantial region.
The administrative area, a formal region which is established artificially and institutionally, is different from endogenous substantial region. The administrative area as a formal region coexists with substantial region, socio-economic space which is the outcome of spontaneous activities of residents.
Therefore, gap between administrative area and substantial region leads to dual
structure of living space. In this sense, correspondence between administrative
area and socio-economic space is an important goal to achieve.
The most urgent problem in spatial organization of administrative area is the gap with substantial region. With the rapid urbanization and the development of transportation and communication technology, time-space conversion becomes accelerated and as a result, spontaneous socio-economic spatial organization experiences the expansion of activity space and the formation of metropolitan urban system. On the other hand, contemporary administrative area which has evolved from Yi dynasty and Japan colonial period fails to accomodate these changes in socio-economic space. Province(Do) corresponds neither to activity space in which a medium-sized city populated more than one hundred thousand has been the central place, nor to metropolitan city-centered activity space. With regard to smaller activity space than county, parish(Myun) is hardly functioning as basic spatial unit. In reality, central city and hinterland have been integrated functionally more and more, whereas metropolitan city and province are mutually exclusive administrative area.