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Evolution of Science and Technology Policy in Korea

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Authors
Yoon, Ji Woong
Issue Date
2014
Publisher
Graduate School of Public Administration, Seoul National University
Citation
Korean Journal of Policy Studies, Vol.29 No.1, pp. 147-172
Keywords
science and technology policyR&D policypolicy instrumentsregulatory policydistributive policycapacity building
Abstract
This paper provides an overview of the key policy instruments and
capacity building policy tools used in each development phase of science and
technology in Korea. In the 1960s and 70s, the Korean government built an
institutional foundation for the development of science and technology. In the later
part of the 60s, the Ministry of Science and Technology and the governmentfunded
research institute became key organizations to implementation of policies
intended to foster the advance of science and technology in Korea. The Korean
government also focused on learning about and absorbing foreign technologies
by licensing and by importing capital goods. From 1980 to 1997, the Korean
government shifted its policy direction from technology learning to developing
by its own scientific and technological capacity in high-technology sectors, which
requires an indigenous R&D capability. It launched large-scale R&D programs
that targeted certain fields to close what was a large gap between advanced
countries and Korea. Korea became a fast follower, making a massive investment
in certain fields, such as the semiconductor, electronics, steel and chemical
industries. In the late 1990s, the Korean government developed a plan to build a
national science and technology innovation system. Although the relevant infrastructures
had been in place for 40 years and an R&D capability for innovation
was in the works, those were not perceived to be systematically working together,
which is crucial for sustainable innovation. The government response to this
problem was to design a policy that tried to systemize the whole process of
science and technology innovation.
ISSN
1225-5017
Language
English
URI
https://hdl.handle.net/10371/91915
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Graduate School of Public Administration (행정대학원)Dept. of Public Administration (행정학과)Korean Journal of Policy Studies (정책논총)Korean Journal of Policy Studies (정책논총) vol.29 no.1-3 (2014)
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