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<허클베리 핀의 모험>에 나타난 인종문제의 양가성: 바흐찐으로 다시 읽기
The Double-sidedness of racial discourse in Twain’s Huckleberry Finn: A Reconsideration in Bakhtin’s Theory

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Authors
유이나
Issue Date
2013
Publisher
서울대학교 미국학연구소
Citation
미국학, Vol.36 No.2, pp. 33-55
Keywords
Mark Twain’s The Adventures of Huckleberry Finnracial controversyMikhail Bakhtin
Abstract
Mark Twain’s The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884) has a history of having fuled an intense controversy over racial discourse. Some identified the author with his narrator Huck who, despite his personal relationship with the negro slave Jim, revealed a racially prejudiced view of his friend. In addition, the conclusion in which Jim is saved by Huck and his white friend Tom has been standing in the center of the controversy, as some interpreted it as a paradoxical satire of the racial realism of 19th Century America, while others saw it as a minstrel show in which Jim is being degraded as a buffoon. It may be worthwhile to discuss passages of the novel which have led to the controversy surrounding the racial discourse to understand how they can be interpreted by both those who have viewed the novel as racist and anti-slavery. Understanding the racial discourse in Huckleberry Finn could be supported by considering Milkhail Bakhtin’s theory about the relationship between the author and language, between the author and the narrator. Bakhtin argues that the author distances himself from the language and the narrator for the sake of his true intention, which may give a clue to understanding the relationship or distance between Twain and Huckleberry Finn’s language and between Twain and Huck.
마크 트웨인(Mark Twain)의 (The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, 1884)은 과거에 인종차별적이라는 비판과 반인종차별적이라는 옹호 사이에서 치열한 논쟁을 이끌어낸 바 있다. 이 작품의 인종문제에 대한 공공연한 논쟁은 1957년 미국 흑인지위향상협회(NAACP)가 흑인 인종의 인간성과 존엄성을 모욕한다는 이유로 ??헉??에서 사용되는 ‘검둥이’(Nigger)라는 단어를 비판하면서 시작되었다. 비평가들 사이에서도 의 인종문제에 대한 평가는 양극단으로 나뉘어졌다. 존 월리스(John Wallace)가 을 역사상 어처구니 없을 정도로 가장 ‘인종차별적인 쓰레기’라고 격렬하게 혹평한 반면에 데이비드 L. 스미스(David L. Smith)는 이 작품이 (멜빌의 작품을 제외한) 대표적인 미국소설들 중에서 단연 가장 반인종차별적이라고 옹호한다. 이 이와 같은 논란을 야기한 것은 아마도 짐(Jim)에 대한 헉(Huck)의 이중적인 태도와 논란의 핵심인 결말 부분에서 기인한 것이다.
ISSN
1229-4381
Language
Korean
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/10371/92235
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Researcher Institutes (연구소)American Studies Institute (미국학연구소)미국학미국학 Volume 36 Number 1/2 (2013)
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