18~19세기 鄕約의 실천과 사회관계의 변화 : 충청도 결성현 포구 마을 星湖里의 사례를 통해서 : Practice of the Village Compact and the Change of Social Relationships in the 18-19 Century Chosŏn Korea : A Case Study from Sŏngha village

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서울대학교 규장각한국학연구원
한국문화, Vol.66, pp. 271-306
village compact systemthe Sŏng-ho village(星湖理)Andong Kim family(安東 金氏)prisonmonetary equalityauthority-obedience relationshipcontractual relationship
충청남도 홍성군 결성면 성호리에서 17세기 중엽 이래 거주하여 왔던 김녕 김씨 집안에는 약 300년 동안의 사회 현상을 살필 수 있는 1,500여점 가량의 문서들이 소장되어 있다. 이 연구는 이 문서들을 통해 성호리의 사회 현상을 총체적으로 파악하고자 하는 일련이 연구 흐름 중 필자의 두 번째 시도이다. 필자의 이전 연구에서는 조선후기 내재적 발전론을 주장하였던 연구자들이 이 집안의 상업 활동을 하나의 증거로 활용하였다는 점에 주목하여, 그들의 상업 활동이 갖는 사회적 의미를 해명하고자 하였다. 더 구체적으로 말해서 이 집안의 집단 의지를 해명함으로써 그 동안 학계에서 부여해 온 상인과 향촌중인이라는 두 가지 관점이 어떻게 접합될 수 있었는지 타진하고자 하였다. 그 결과 이 집안은 자신의 富 대부분을 직첩을 사들여 向化人이라는 자신의 미천한 신분을 鋪道하기 위해 사용하는 한편, 종중을 건립하고 유교 교양을 습득하는 등 양반문화를 끊임없이 흡수해 왔다는 사실을 확인할 수 있었다.
This paper aims to illuminate the local and historical characteristics of the western coastal in Chosŏn dynasty by studying the change of the social relationships among native inhabitants in the Sŏng-ho village(星湖里), Andong Kim family(安東 金氏) from the outer, the local government, the bureau of Kyulsŏng(結城縣), conjunct with the village compact system. Having studied this topic, I reached three conclusions as follows. 1. The Sŏng-ho village compact system was construed by the agreement between Andong Kim family and the influential inhabitants in Sŏng-ho village in the mid-l8th century. This village compact system was scheduled that the Yangban class(兩班) ruled the village through the organization of village compact. It was managed not by ritual but by penalty. It was like a sort of prison, which it is difficult for the participants to escape. 2. Some families belonging to the middle group(副契), village natives had the political hegemony over this village through this village compact system practically. Their fundamental purpose was to block the excessive taxes imposed by the informal bureaucrats by borrowing the power of the outer the Yangban class(兩班) coming from Seoul. 3. The relationship between Andong Kim family and the influential inhabitants in Sŏng-ho village had changed greatly four times in all. As the time flies, their relationship changed from the authority-obedience relationship to the contractual relationship based on monetary equality.
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Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies (규장각한국학연구원)Korean Culture (한국문화) Korean Culture (한국문화) vol.65-68(2014)
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