S-Space Graduate School of International Studies (국제대학원) Dept. of International Studies (국제학과) 국제지역연구 국제지역연구 vol.04 (1995)
유럽안보공동체의 가능성과 한계
The Formation of European Security Community: The Possiblity and Its Limits
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 지역종합연구소
- 지역연구, Vol.04 No.2, pp. 183-199
- This is a study on the possibility of the formation of the so-called European Security community and its limits. The Idea of the European integration movement was advocated by Jean Monnet for European economic development and the maintaining of peace in Europe immedately after WWII. In the same logic, Western European countries have successfully integrated into Euroepan Economic Community, but military-security perspective, they have long confronted through NATO and Warsaw Treaty Organizaion. The former is the allied institution on which western European countries depended their national defense and security and the later is the socialist alliance through which the old USSR and eastern European countries had pursued their national security.
Following the collapse of the old USSR and the democratization of eastern European countries, a new European international political environment and political order have emerged. First of all, Germany was reunified. CSCE has played a significant role in ending the era of the cold war which has been maintained for almost 45 years since WWII, and has emerged as the pan-European security community for the security and peace of the entire Europe. Through the conclusion of the Maastricht Treaty of 1991, the member-states of EC have agreed upon the establishment of the United States of Europe by means of economic, political, and diplomatic-defense integration. They thought such a European political union would function as a common European defense system. However, each member-states of EC has different interests and different attitudes toward the formation of a common European security community as well as the roles and functions of WEU and NATO. The Unites States considers yet NATO will be an appropriate institution, if it expands its economic and political roles rather than the military role, even in the era of the post-cold war and international peace and cooperations.
Generally speaking, it is a great advantage that CSCE has encompassed all the countries of western and eastern Europe, whereas its weakness is the lack of forcible means as a collective security system. WEU may be meaningful in that it is europeanized and will function as an European. security system, but it has limits in playing the role of the entire European security system. Although NATO has a strong organization and military power, but since it is the by-product of Cold War the expansion of influence of NATO following the collapse of the old USSR and the socialist camp will be misunderstood as that of the United States.
In conclusion, therefore, it is a best alternative that by encouraging the advantageous points of CSCE, WEU, and NATO and complementing each weakness of others, these organizations .pursue the cooperation in the European security and peace.