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An Analysis of U.S. Bureaucracy in Democracy Promotion Efforts: Case of Haiti

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Authors
Byung Hun Choi
Advisor
김태균
Major
국제대학원 국제학과
Issue Date
2015-02
Publisher
서울대학교 대학원
Keywords
Democracy promotionU.S. foreign assistanceDepartment of StateDepartment of DefenseUSAIDHaitiNational Security Council
Description
학위논문 (석사)-- 서울대학교 국제대학원 : 국제학과, 2015. 2. 김태균.
Abstract
본 논문은 민주주의 촉진에 있어서 각 미국 행정부의 역할이 무엇인지 연구하였다. 미국의 민주주의 촉진을 분석한 많은 기존 연구가 있었지만, 이들은 각 미국 대통령 개인이 추구해왔던 정책 목표를 다루고 있으며, 각각 예하 행정부를 비롯한 정부 기관들의 영향 및 역할은 주목하지 못하였다. 본 연구는 미국 대외원조 관점 에서, 미국의 민주주의 촉진에 있어서 각 미국 주요 행정부 기관간 의 역학관계를 분석하고 이해하고자 한다.
본 논문은 미국의 주요 세 개 행정부/기관의 민주주의 촉진 관련하여 의사 결정을 비롯한 역할 분석, 이 세 개 행정부의 역할과 역학관계를 분석 한다. 특히 본 논문은 Allison 의 관료정치모델 (Bureaucratic Politics Model)를 차용하여, 미국의 민주주의 촉진에 있어서 각 행정부 기관에 합의가 결정권에 있어서 중요한 역할 수행함을 제시한다.
본 논문은 미국의 민주주의 촉진에 있어서 90 년대 미국이 아이티에서 실시한 Operation Uphold Democracy 를 각 행정부의 역학관계를 보여준 대표적인 사례로 연구를 하였다. 특히 미국의 국방부 (Department of Defense), 국무부 (Department of State), 국제 개발처 (USAID)의 다양한 목표와 과정을 컨트롤 타워처럼 조정할 수 있는 기관으로 미국 백악관에 속해 있는 국가안전보장회의 (National Security Council)를 제시한다.
The rise in globalization has brought many effects both benefits as well as challenges. With regards to challenges, the focus has been on how to improve institution to address global problems that have gone beyond state boundaries. While improving institutional mechanisms seems to be one of the core ideals to address global challenges, there is always a question of how to do that. In dealing with the question of how, this is where democracy could come in. The debate always rages on whether democracy is good or necessary for a particular country. Still, it can be argued that democracy could serve as a vital roadmap to ensure effective institutional capacity that will cater to ownership and participation by the public. Such needs are particularly emphasized for fragile states or post-conflicts countries where there has to be stable institutions. In normative terms, it may be easy to assume how to implement or advance such goals, yet in practical terms that may not so be the case. Looking at such needs lead to the possibility of democracy as one of the implementation tools or mechanism. Still the question has been raised as to whether effort to promote democracy is indeed necessary, amid the criticism of the U.S. democracy promotion efforts as highly bureaucratized and politicized. Up to this point there have been calls to reform democracy promotion effort arrangements of the United States. Previous literature has mostly dealt with an analysis of individual U.S. presidents administration stance on democracy promotion as a whole. To understand what drives the democracy promotion, the focus of this research is not on individual U.S. president, but analysis at an organizational level that includes major agencies of the United States, which include State Department, Department of Defense, and USAID, revisiting the bureaucratic side of the U.S. democracy aid. Major U.S. agencies have undertaken U.S. foreign assistance, with democracy or related elements to democracy as a direct target as well as indirect target, in a manner that often is overlap and in an incoherent manner. The goal of this bureaucratic analysis is determining driving force behind the organizations in democracy promotion efforts, particularly pertaining to post-conflict/fragile states. Based on analysis of what drives U.S. democracy promotion efforts, the main focus of this thesis is to look at why such efforts often have not led to successful efforts. The case study of Operation Uphold Democracy in Haiti illustrates important role of National Security Council (NSC) as a control tower for interagency/interdepartmental coordination in overseas assistance efforts.
Language
English
URI
https://hdl.handle.net/10371/126282
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Graduate School of International Studies (국제대학원)Dept. of International Studies (국제학과)Theses (Master's Degree_국제학과)
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