The Effects of Question/Option Presentation Mode and Item Type on L2 Listening Test Performance and Perception of Korean EFL Leaners

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사범대학 외국어교육과
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서울대학교 대학원
multiple-choice questionssecond language listeningtest format
학위논문 (석사)-- 서울대학교 대학원 : 외국어교육과 영어전공, 2016. 8. 소영순.
This study explored the effects of question/option presentation mode and item type on EFL learners listening comprehension performance and their perception. The aural and written modes of presentation are compared for the two item types, the dialogue-completion and question-and-answer (Q&A). One hundred and fifteen Korean college students participated in the study, and they were divided into three different proficiency groups: low intermediate, mid/high intermediate, and advanced levels. The participants took a listening test with 4 aural and 4 written dialogue-completion multiple-choice items and another 4 aural and 4 written Q&A multiple-choice items. After taking the test, the participants also completed a survey on their perceptions of each section of the test and participated in a stimulated recall interview.
The results showed that the low intermediate group performed significantly better in the written mode than in the aural mode, while they received similar scores on the two item types. This coincides with the survey results, in which the aural mode was perceived as more difficult, and the written mode was preferred. Moreover, unlike the groups with higher proficiency levels who regarded the aural mode more valid for both the dialogue-completion and Q&A items, the low intermediate group felt the aural mode was better for the dialogue-completion items, while the written mode was more appropriate for the Q&A items. The survey and the stimulated recall interviews revealed that the reason the lowest proficiency group found the aural mode much more challenging was that it, additionally, required a high level of concentration and good memory. This did not mean that the written mode was better for them, however, because it allowed them to use the word-matching strategy which was not relevant to the listening comprehension. Also, reading the options in the allotted amount of time was difficult for many low proficiency participants when taking the test in the written mode.
On the other hand, while the mid/high intermediate and advanced group scored significantly higher on the dialogue-completion items than on the Q&A items, they demonstrated little difference in scores between the two modes. Still, they felt the aural mode was much more difficult than the written mode, and the advanced group even expressed a stronger preference for the written mode than the other two groups did. The results from the survey and the stimulated recall interview suggested that even though they could perform equally well on the both modes, they were more confident about reading the questions and options than listening them. Also, they did not have any difficulty in reading quickly, which allowed them to read the options in advance and predict the listening stimuli.
All things considered, memory capacity and reading ability were found to be the two major construct-irrelevant factors in the aural and written mode of the listening comprehension tests, respectively. Since we do not want the memory capacity or the reading ability to decide the listening test results in most cases, the effort to minimize their effects is necessary when developing the tests. The implications and limitations of this study and suggestions for future research are discussed.
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College of Education (사범대학)Dept. of Foreign Language Education (외국어교육과)English Language (영어전공)Theses (Master's Degree_영어전공)
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