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도교 교리사상의 형성과 전개 : Formation and Development of Daoist Doctrines and Thoughts

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무기타니구니오; 정재상

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서울대학교 종교문제연구소
종교와 문화, Vol.33, pp. 1-19
도기(道氣)도성(道性)불성(佛性)묘본(妙本)현원시삼기(玄元始三氣)Dao-QiDao Nature (daoxing)Buddha Nature (foxing)Mystical Root (miaoben)Three Qi of MysteriousPrimaryand Beginning (xuan-yuan-shi sanqi)
六朝から隋唐時代にかけての道敎敎理の形成時期においては、哲學的槪 念である「道」や「氣」と神學的槪念である「神」との關係をどのように規定す るかが最大の敎理思想的課題であった。この問題に對する最初の解は、「 道」と「氣」とを同一の存在とみなす「道氣」槪念と、それを核として展開し た道氣神三位一體の敎理思想の形成の中に見ることができる。この道氣神 三位一體說は、その後の佛敎との論爭の過程でより精緻なものとなり、唐 代には「道」と「氣」と「神」とは窮極の根源的實在である「妙本」の「迹」(個別 具體的な發現)にすぎないとする敎說として完成する。同時に、こうした 敎理構成の過程からは、無識有道性說が佛敎における無識有佛性說に先行 して主張されるなど、思想史的にも極めて注目すべき重要な成果が生み出 されたのである。
The Six Dynasties, Sui and Tang periods of China is the formation period of Daoist doctrine. During this period, the most important doctrinal question in Daoism was how to determine the relation between the philosophical concepts of Dao 道 (the Way) and Qi 氣 (the pneuma), and the theological concept of Shen 神 (the gods or spirit). We can find the first answer to this question in the concept of Daoqi 道氣, in which Dao and Qi were regarded as identical. It developed the Daoist doctrine of Trinity of Dao, Qi, and Shen, which became more sophisticated in the process of disputing with Buddhist. The Daoist doctrine was completed in the Tang dynasty period. It explained Dao, Qi, and Shen are just the ji 迹, or the phenomenal and distinct manifestations of miaoben 妙本 (the Mystical Root), which is the fundamental being of the three. At the same time, in the process of composing Daoist doctrine, a noteworthy argument was advocated the Dao-xing 道性 (Dao Nature) is inherent in all beings including non-conscious beings. Such an argument is preceded to the Buddhist famous doctrine that Buddha Nature is inherent in non-conscious beings, and this is extremely important achievement in Chinese history of thoughts.
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