Wearable and Implantable Devices for Cardiovascular Healthcare: from Monitoring to Therapy Based on Flexible and Stretchable Electronics
- Issue Date
- Advanced Functional Materials, Vol.29 No.19, p. 1808247
- cardiovascular healthcare ; device-assisted cell therapy ; flexible electronics ; implantable device ; wearable device
- Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and has dramatically increased in recent years. Continuous cardiac monitoring is particularly important for early diagnosis and prevention, and flexible and stretchable electronic devices have emerged as effective tools for this purpose. Their thin, soft, and deformable features allow intimate and long-term integration with biotissues, which enables continuous, high-fidelity, and sometimes large-area cardiac monitoring on the skin and/or heart surface. In addition to monitoring, intimate contact is also crucial for high-precision therapies. Combined with tissue engineering, soft bioelectronics have also demonstrated the capability to repair damaged cardiac tissues. This review highlights the recent advances in wearable and implantable devices based on flexible and stretchable electronics for cardiovascular monitoring and therapy. First, wearable/implantable soft bioelectronics for cardiovascular monitoring (e.g., the electrocardiogram, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation level) are reviewed. Then, advances in cardiovascular therapy based on soft bioelectronics (e.g., mesh pacing, ablation, robotic sleeves, and electronic stents) are discussed. Finally, device-assisted tissue engineering therapy (e.g., functional electronic scaffolds and in vitro cardiac platforms) is discussed.
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