S-Space College of Pharmacy (약학대학) Dept. of Manufacturing Pharmacy (제약학과) Journal Papers (저널논문_제약학과)
Cell cycle was disturbed in the MNNG-induced initiation stage during in vitro two-stage transformation of Balb/3T3 cells
- Issue Date
- Elsevier BV
- Toxicology, Vol.163 No.2-3, pp.175-184
- In vitro two-stage transformation. an important method for the screening of carcinogens, is a valuable approach For the mechanistic study of multi-stage carcinogenesis. However, very little is known about the molecular and cellular mechanisms, particularly in terms of cell cycle control during in vitro two-stage transformation. We improved the in vitro two-stage transformation method using N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) as an initiator and cadmium as a promoter. and reconfirmed the promotional effect of cadmium (Fang et al., 2001a). To determine the alterations of cell cycle control in the MNNG-induced initiation stage during transformation, we examined the effects of MNNG on Balb/3T3 A31 cell growth, and determined the alterations of the protein and/or mRNA levels of cyclins B1, D1, E, and C, PCNA, GADD45, p27, and wild-type p53. After 4 hour treatment of MNNG. populations of G2/M phase distribution and apoptotic fraction and the cyclin G mRNA level increased, while the cyclin B1 mRNA Level decreased in a concentration-dependent manner. Wild-type p53. p27, and GADD45 protein levels also increased as a function of MNNG concentrations. However, cyclin D1, cyclin E, and PCNA expressions remained unchanged. During the initiation stage, PCNA protein expression decreased on the first day after MNNG-treatment, then increased gradually during rhs Following 6 days; and further increased on the first day after cadmium treatment. Although wild-type p53 and p27 protein expressions also showed temporary retardation on the first day after MNNG-treatment, the expressions increased gradually during the following 6 days, but decreased rapidly by the cadmium treatment. These results indicated that during the initiation stage, MNNG induced G2/M arrest and apoptosis with increased expressions of wild-type p53, p27, and GADD45 proteins: and down-regulated mRNA level of cyclin B1 and up-regulated mRNA level of cyclin G. In addition, although a few of the G2/M-arrested cells proliferated gradually. most cells continued to be suppressed and inactivated by the over-expressions of wild-type p53 and p27 until the cadmium treatment. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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