S-Space Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology (융합과학기술대학원) Dept. of Molecular and Biopharmaceutical Sciences (분자의학 및 바이오제약학과) Journal Papers (저널논문_분자의학 및 바이오제약학과)
Nitric oxide induces expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in mouse skin through activation of NF-kappa B
- Chun, Kyung-Soo; Cha, Hyun-Ho; Shin, Jun-Wan; Na, Hye-Kyung; Park, Kwang-Kyun; Chung, Won-Yoon; Surh, Young-Joon
- Issue Date
- Carcinogenesis, Vol.25 No.3, pp.445-454
- Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) are frequently overexpressed in tumor tissues or transformed cells. In the present work, we assessed the effects of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on expression of iNOS and COX-2 in mouse skin. Topical application to the dorsal skin of female ICR mice of 10 nmol TPA led to maximal induction of iNOS and COX-2 protein expression at similar to2 and 4 h, respectively. When applied topically onto shaven backs of mice 30 min prior to TPA, the NOS inhibitor aminoguanidine (AG) inhibited the expression of COX-2 protein at the pharmacologically effective dose. Pretreatment with a more specific iNOS inhibitor, N-G-nitro-l-arginine-methyl ester, also suppressed TPA-induced COX-2 expression. Immunohistochemical analysis of TPA-treated mouse skin using an anti-nitrotyrosine antibody reveals enhanced levels of nitrotyrosine protein localized in epidermal and dermal layers. Topical application of NO donors, such as sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and S-nitroso-N-acetyl-d,l-penicillamine, induced expression of COX-2 in mouse skin, which was attenuated by the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl imidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide. SNP treatment stimulated NF-kappaB activation in mouse skin, which was associated with the degradation of IkappaBalpha. Topical application of inhibitors of NF-kappaB, such as pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate or N-alpha-p-tosyl-l-lysine chloromethylketone, inhibited the SNP-induced COX-2 expression. SNP induced a weak but concentration-related increase in COX-2 expression in cultured mouse keratinocytes, which was abolished by treatment with SN50, a specific inhibitor of nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB. Mouse keratinocytes treated with SNP exhibited an elevated NF-kappaB-driven COX-2 promoter activity. Topical application of AG (10 mumol) prior to each TPA treatment after initiation reduced the multiplicity of papillomas by 44% at 22 weeks. In conclusion, up-regulation of COX-2 by NO may be mediated by activation of NF-kappaB in mouse skin, which provides a molecular mechanism by which COX-2 is induced during tumor promotion.
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