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Estimating Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Among Long-Term Colorectal Cancer Survivors: A Nationwide Cohort Study

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Jeong, Seogsong; Lee, Gyeongsil; Choi, Seulggie; Kim, Kyae Hyung; Chang, Jooyoung; Kim, Sung Min; Kim, Kyuwoong; Son, Joung Sik; Cho, Yoosun; Park, Sang Min

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Frontiers Media S.A.
Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine, Vol.8, p. 721107
BackgroundConcerns about a growing number of colorectal cancer survivors have emerged regarding cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks. However, there is not yet a predictive tool that can estimate CVD risk and support the management of healthcare as well as disease prevention in terms of CVD risk among long-term colorectal cancer survivors. AimTo develop predictive tools to estimate individualized overall and each subtype of CVD risk using a nationwide cohort in South Korea. Methods and ResultsA total of 4,709 newly diagnosed patients with colorectal cancer who survived at least 5 years in the National Health Insurance System were analyzed. Cox proportional hazard regression was used for the identification of independent risk factors for the derivation of predictive nomograms, which were validated in an independent cohort (n = 3,957). Age, fasting serum glucose, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, Charlson comorbidity index, household income, body mass index, history of chemotherapy, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption were identified as independent risk factors for either overall CVD or each subtype of CVD subtype. Based on the identified independent risk factors, six independent nomograms for each CVD category were developed. Validation by an independent cohort demonstrated a good calibration with a median C-index of 0.687. According to the nomogram-derived median score, relative risks of 2.643, 1.821, 4.656, 2.629, 4.248, and 5.994 were found for overall CVD, ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, total stroke, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhage stroke in the validation cohort. ConclusionsThe predictive tools were developed with satisfactory accuracy. The derived nomograms may support the estimation of overall and individual CVD risk for long-term colorectal cancer survivors.
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