Consumers better explained drivers of liking for products containing complex flavor with subtle differences than trained panelists: Comparison between consumer-driven free-comment analysis and descriptive analysis of tomato sauce with added garlic flavorings
- Issue Date
- Food and Nutrition Press, Inc.
- Journal of Sensory Studies
- © 2022 Wiley Periodicals LLC.Owing to difficulties associated with profiling and differentiation, it is challenging to identify drivers of liking of samples that contain complex flavor but have subtle differences. This study compared the efficacy of free-comment (FC) analysis with descriptive analysis (DA) for profiling the sensory characteristics of tomato sauce with added garlic flavoring to identify the drivers of liking. Seven garlic tomato sauce samples were prepared by the addition of different garlic flavorings or crushed garlic. FC was conducted using 82 consumer panelists and DA was performed using eight trained panelists. Compared with the DA, the FC revealed the differences between samples better by using the concepts relevant to consumers and the descriptors with hedonic connotations. FC better identified the drivers of liking for the products with subtle differences, particularly in odor and flavor, but the standardized descriptors of DA could not sufficiently explain them due to a poor correlation with liking. Practical applications: As the consumer demand for healthful yet flavorful foods increases, the flavors of foods need to be finely adjusted using flavorings to meet consumer expectation. This can cause subtle changes in flavors that may be recognized but are not easy to verbalize or to distinguish, even by trained panelists. In such cases, it is difficult to derive the sensory determinants of liking that may be critical to guide product development. This study compared FC and DA to examine if the more spontaneous and richer descriptions obtained from FC could efficiently profile sample sets with subtle flavor differences. This study will aid the selection of efficient profiling methods for products with complex flavors.
- Files in This Item: There are no files associated with this item.